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पारदर्शिता की सिल्वर लाइन झलकी

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mPpre@mPp U;k;ky; esa ttst dh fu;qfDr VªkalQj 'kq# ls gh fooknksa ds ?ksjs esa jgk gSA tcrd ;g ljdkj ds gkFk esa Hkh mldh vkykspuk gksrh Fkh tcls lqizhe dksVZ dksysft;e ds ek/;e ls gksus yxh ogha vkjksi ml ij yxus yxsA bu vkjksiksa@fooknksa ds okftc dkj.k Hkh FksA ,d vge loky [kM+k gksrk Fkk fd ,d izR;kosnu dks ^Speaking and reasoned order* ls fuLrkfjr djus dk jkst vkns'k nsus okyk laLFkku vius ;gka ds loksZPp in ¼U;k;ewfrZ½ ij fu;qfDr izfØ;k esa xksiuh;rk D;ksa j[krk FkkA

bl vkykspuk esa tfLVl t;Ur iVsy ds LFkkukurj.k us vkx esa ?kh dk dke fd;kA turk esa ;g Hkze iSnk gks x;k fd tfLVl iVsy dk LFkkukurj.k ljdkj ds b'kkjs ij fd;k x;k gS D;ksafd xqtjkr gkbZdksVZ esa rSukrh ds nkSjku mudh csap us xqtjkr naxksa dh lhchvkbZ tkap dk vkns'k fn;k FkkA Kkr gks fd tfLVl t;Ur iVsy dks dukZVd ls bykgkckn gkbZdksVZ VªkalQj dj fn;k x;k Fkk ftlds fojks/k esa mUgksaus vius in ls bLrhQk ns fn;kA muds bl VªkalQj dks xqtjkr] fnYyh ,oa dukZVd gkbZdksVZ ckj us muds mRihM+u ds :i esa ekurs gq, vkanksyu fd;k rFkk mlls lacaf/kr ,d ;kfpdk Hkh lqizhe dksVZ esa nkf[ky gqbZA

pkjks vksj gks jgh vkykspuk ds en~ns utj lqizhe dksVZ dksysft;e us viuh dk;Ziz.kkyh esa ikjnf'kZrk ykus ds mn~ns'; ls ttst dh fu;qfDr muds LFkk;hdj.k rFkk LFkkukUrj.k ls tqM+h gj tkudkjh viuh osclkbV ij Mkyus dk fu.kZ; 3 vDVwcj dh dksysft;e dh cSBd esa fy;k ftldk gj oxZ us Lokxr fd;kA dksysft;e Lohd`r izLrko esa dgk fd dksysft;e dh xksiuh;rk cjdjkj j[krs gq, ikjnf'kZrk ykus ds fy, ;g fu.kZ; fy;k x;k gSA

ikjnf'kZrk bZekunkjh dk igyk lksiku gS tcfd xksiuh;rk Hkz"Vkpkj dh tuuh o Discretion mldk ikyu iks"k.kdrkZ gSA

Lokra=;ksÙkj Hkkjr esa turk dks nks vf/kdkj] ,d U;k;ikfydk }kjk ,d fo/kkf;dk }kjk ,sls feys ftlls mldk vkSj ns'k dk cgqr dqN Hkyk gks ldrk Fkk ysfdu vQlksl ,d dk lgh mi;ksx ugha gks ik jgk gS tcfd nwljs dk mi;ksx ftEesnkj inksa ij cSBs yksx ckf/kr dj jgs gSaA ;s vf/kdkj gSa tufgr ;kfpdk o lwpuk dk vf/kdkjA ;s nksuksa ,d nwljs ds iwjd gSa rFkk nksuksa dk mn~ns'; turk dks vU;k; ls cpkuk rFkk ftEesnkj yksxksa ds dke&dkt esa ikjnf'kZrk lqfuf'pr djuk gSA

yksdra= ds LrEHk fo/kkf;dk] dk;Zikfydk o U;k;ikfydk ,slk izrhr gksrk gS fd bl ikjnf'kZrk ds iwjh rjg ls f[kykQ gS D;ksafd ;fn ,slk u gksrk rks eq[; U;k;k/kh'k ls ysdj iz/kkuea=h rd lc vius dks lwpuk vf/kdkj dkuwu ls ckgj j[kus dh ckr u djrsA vHkh dqN le; iwoZ mPpre U;k;ky; o mPp U;k;ky; ;gk¡ rd dh eq[; U;k;k/kh'k dh fu;qfDr esa ikjnf'kZrk ,oa tokcnsgh lqfuf'pr djus ds fy, lwpuk ds vf/kdkj ds rgr tkudkfj;k¡ ekaxh tkus yxha tks U;k;ikfydk dks cgqr ukxokj xqtjha tcfd U;k;ikfydk esa tulkekU; dk fo'okl iquZLFkkfir djus ds fy, ;g u flQZ U;k;laxr gS cfYd t:jh Hkh gSA

igys dsUnz ljdkj dh flQkfj'k ij fu;qfDr;k¡ gksrh Fkha ckn esa mPpre U;k;ky; ,d tqfMfl;y vkMZj djds viuh dksysft;e ds ek/;e ls fu;qfDr;k¡ djus yxk ysfdu fookn o cgl dks fojke ugha yxkA ftlds ihNs egRoiw.kZ dkj.k Hkh gSA tc dsUnz dh flQkfj'k ij fu;qfDr;k¡ gksrh Fkha rc Hkh tt cuus dh ;ksX;rk ekius dk dksbZ ekin.M ugha Fkk] ikVhZ ds vuq'kkflr odhy dk;ZdÙkkZ dks tt cuk fn;k tkrk Fkk vc tc mPp U;k;ky; dks dksysft;e dh fu;qfDr dh flQkfj'k ij mPpre U;k;ky; dh dksysft;e fu;qfDr dh flQkfj'k djrh gS rks Hkh ;ksX;rk ekius dk dksbZ fu/kkZfjr ekin.M ugha gS vkSj ;fn dksbZ gS Hkh rks og xqIr gSA ;g ek= dqN lhfu;j ttksa dk Discretion gS ftldks ekudj mPpre U;k;ky; ds dksysft;e ds lnL; vius Discretion ds vk/kkj ij fu.kZ; djrs gSa ftldk urhtk gS fd dqN fu;qfDr;ksa ls U;k;ikfydk dh xfjek dks vk?kkr yxk gSA ,slk dbZ ckj gks pqdk gS fd mPpre U;k;ky; dh dksysfTk;e mPp U;k;ky; ds dksfyft;e }kjk vxzlkfjr ukeksa dks vLohdkj dj nsrk gSA dHkh dHkh rks ljdkj Hkh ekuus ls budkj dj nsrh gS D;k bl ns'k dh turk dks ;g tkuus dk vf/kdkj ugha gS fd fdl vk/kkj ij ttst dh fu;qfDr gsrq uke Hksts x;s vkSj fdu dkj.kksa ls mudks vLohd`r dj fn;k x;k\

vkt yk[k Vds dk loky gS fd brus egRoiw.kZ in ij fu;qfDr ds fy, D;k dksbZ Criteria ¼ekin.M½ gS\ ttst dh fu;qfDr ds fy, lafo/kku ds vuqPNsn 217 ¼1½ o ¼2½ esa LFkk;h rFkk vuqPNsn 224 esa ,fM'kuy ttst dh fu;qfDr dk izko/kku fd;k x;k gSA H.M. Seervai ds Constitutional law of India ds pkSFks laLdj.k esa ml ij fy[kk gS&

"...That procedure was designed to test the fitness of a person to be appointed a High Court Judge; his character, his integrity and his campetence in various branches of the law, and the like. In recruiting a person from the Bar, his experience in defferent kinds of litigation would also be taken in to account"

ttst dh fu;qfDr esa ,d fuf'pr Criteria dk u gksuk bldh xfjek o U;k; dh xq.koÙkk nksuks dks izHkkfor dj jgk gSA tc 10'x10'/4 ds pSEcj ds ,YkkVes.V ds fy, Criteria fu/kkZfjr djuk vko';d gS tSlk fd ekuuh; U;k;ewfrZ nsoh izlkn flag o U;k;ewfrZ vYyk jge dh ihB us fot; 'kadj f=ikBh ,oa vU; cuke ekuuh; mPp U;k;ky; bykgkckn ,oa vU; esa tks [2007(25) LCD 1266] esa fjiksVZM gS ,ykVeasV fyLV dks Quash djrs gq, fy[kk gS&

"Opposite parties may proceed afresh to allot the chambers ofter formulating the criteria...." rc ttksa dh fu;qfDr esa dksbZ Criteria D;ksa ugha\

bruk gh ugha ofj"B vf/koDrk ukfer djus ds fy, Full court dh jk; t:jh gS rks tt dh fu;qfDr esa flQZ rhu dh gh jk; D;ksa\ ikjnf'kZrk ds vHkko o Discretion dk Qk;nk mBkrs gq, ttksa dh fu;qfDr esa ^va/kk ckaVs jsoM+h viqfg vkiqfg ys;* dh dgkor pfjrkFkZ gksrh gSA Discretion ds lhfer mi;ksx ij In Supreme Court Advocate-on-Record Association & others V/s Union of India Reported in 1993(4) SCC 441 speaking for the majority Hon'ble J.S. Verma J held".... the reduction of the area of discretion to the minimum, the element of plurality of Judges in formation of the opinion of the Chief Justice of India effective consultation in writing and  prevailing norms to regulate the area of discretion are Sufficient checks" ysfdu okLro esa gks blds myVk jgk gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd bruh deh ds ckotwn ukeksa ij lgefr ugha cu ikrh gSA

ttksa dh fu;qfDr dks ysdj tks iz'u lkeus vk jgs gSa os u flQZ vuqÙkfjr gSa cfYd iwjh&iwjh U;k;ikfydk dks dV?kjs esa [kM+k djus okys gSa vkSj flQZ ttst dh gh fu;qfDr ugha bykgkckn mPp U;k;ky; esa pkj o"kZ iwoZ rd yxHkx 40 o"kksZa esa prqFkZ Js.kh dh fu;qfDr ds fy, Hkh ,d Hkh foKkiu ugha fudyk Fkk r`rh; Js.kh esa lSdM+ksa fu;qfDr;k¡ euekus <ax ls dh x;h vkf[kj D;ksa\ D;k ;g Hkz"Vkpkj dk [ksy ugha gS\

yxHkx jkst gh ikjnf'kZrk dh /kqu ctkus okys U;k;ky; dkuwu ls Åij gS\ vkf[kj ikjnf'kZrk ls bruh ?kcM+kgV D;ksa\ ttksa dh fu;qfDr ds ckjs esa lwpuk lkoZtfud djus ds fy, Central Information Commission us tks funsZ'k tkjh fd;k Fkk mls mPpre U;k;ky; us viuh gh dksVZ esa pqukSrh ns nhA eq[; U;k;k/kh'k dks Right to Information Act ds ambit esa gksus ds fnYyh mPp U;k;ky; ds] fu.kZ; ij rRdkyhu eq[; U;k;k/kh'k ds-th- ckykd`".kuu~ us ;g vkifÙk mBk;h fd ttst dh fu;qfDr;ksa ls lacaf/kr tkudkfj;k¡ losan'khy gS ftUgsa lkoZtkfud ugha fd;k tk ldrkA ;g ckr le> ls ijs gS fd fdlh Hkh fu;qfDr esa mlls lEcaf/kr tkudkjh fdl fygkt+ ls laosnu'khy gS flok; Hkz"Vkpkj dsA blls myV tc p;u izfØ;k ikjn'khZ o ekin.M vk/kkfjr gksrh gS rks ,slh fu;qfDr;ksa esa tu fo'okl dk Hkh lekos'k gksrk gSA fu;qfDr lEca/kh lwpuk lkoZtkfud u djuk mlesa Hkz"Vkpkj dh vk'kadk dks tUe nsrk gSA

Kkr gks fd tc ttst dh fu;qfDr dsUnz ljdkj }kjk dh tkrh Fkh rks 1981 esa Lo;a mPpre U;k;ky; us gh fu;qfDr ls lacaf/kr lwpukvksa dks lkoZtfud djus dk funsZ'k nsrs gq, S.P. Gupta V/s Union of India Reported in AIR 1982 SC 149 esa observe fd;k& "....Sometimes it is difficult to recruit competent judges and no useful purpose is served by appointing mediocre judges who ultimately would not be able to make any impact so far as the arrears of pending cases are concerned and who would dilute the quality of justice administered in the High Court."

"....Now it is obvious from the Constitution that we have adopted a democratic form of Government. Where a society has chosen to accept democracy as its creedal faith, it is elementary that the citizens ought to know what their government is doing. The citizens have a right to decide by whom and by what rules they shall be governed and they are entitled to call on those who govern on their behalf to account for their conduct. No democratic government can survive without accountability and the basic postulate of accountability is that the people should have information about the functioning of the government. It is only if people know how government is functioning that they can fulfill the role which democracy assigns to them and make democracy a really effective participatory democracy. "Knowledge" said James Madison, "will for ever govern ignorance and a people who mean to be their own governors must arm themselves with the power knowledge gives. A popular government without popular information or the means of obtaining it. is but a prologue to a farce or tragedy or perhaps both." The citizens' right, to know the facts, the true facts, about, the administration of the country is thus one of the pillars of a democratic State. And that is why the demand for openness in the government is increasingly growing in defferent parts of the world."

"....    The demand for openness in the government is based principally on two reasons. It is now widely accepted that democracy, does not consist merely in people exercising their franchise once in five years to choose their rules and, once the vote is cast, then retiring in passivity and not taking any interest in the government. Today it is common ground that democracy has a moralities content and its orchestration has to be continuous and pervasive. This means inter alia that people should not only cast intelligent and rational votes but should also emeralds sound judgment on the conduct of the government and the merits of public policies; so that democracy does not remain merely a sporadic exercise in voting but becomes a continuous process of government--an attitude and habit of mind. But this important role people can fulfill in a democracy only if it is an open government where there is full access to information in regard to the functioning of the government."

"....    A democratic government, however, though it must compete with these other types of organisation, has a task which is complicated by its obligations to the people. It needs the trust of the governed. It. cannot, use the plea of secrecy to hide from the people its basic aims. On the contrary it must explain these aims: It must provide the justification for them and give the facts both for and against a selected course of action. Now must such information be provided only at one level and through one means of communication? A government which pursues secret aims, or which operates in greater secrecy than the effective conduct of its proper functions requires, or which turns information services into propaganda agencies, will loose the trust of the people. It will be countered by ill-informed and destructive criticism. Its critics will try to break down all barriers erected to preserve secrecy and they will disclose all that they can by whatever means, discover. As a result matters will be revealed when they ought to remain secret in the interests of the nation."

"....    We have no doubt that high level constitutional functionaries like the Chief Justice of a High Court and the Chief Justice of India would not be deterred from performing their constitutional duty of expressing their views boldly and fearlessly even if they were told that the correspon- dence containing their views might subsequently be disclosed, If, to quote the words of Lord Pearce in Conway v. rimmer 1968 AC 910 (supra) "there are countless teachers at schools and universities, countless employers of labour, who write candid reports, unworried by the outside chance of disclosure" here is no reason to suspect that high level constitutional functionaries like the Chief Justice of a High Court and the Chief Justice of India would flinch and falter in expressing their frank and sincere views when performing their constitutional duty. We have already dealt with the argument based on the need for candour and frankness and we must reject it in its application to the case of holders of high constitutional offices like the Chief Justice of a High Court and the Chief Justice of India. Be it noted -- and of this we have no doubt -- that our Chief Justices and Judges are made of sterner stuff; they have inherited a long and ancient tradition of independence and impartiality they are by training and experience as also by their oath of office dedicated to the cause of justice administered without fear or favour, affection or ill-will and in fact there is no power on earth which can deflect them from the path of rectitude. We find it difficult to believe that they would not act as Judges but as weak kneed and ef-fete individuals afraid to express their views lest they might come to be known to others and provoke criticism. Confidentiality is not a head of privilege and the need for confidentiality of high level communications without more cannot sustain a claim for immunity against disclosure. Vide Science Research Council v. Nassa (1979) 3 All ER 673 and particularly the observations of Lord Scarman at pp. 697 and 698. Even if a document be confidential, it must be produced, notwithstanding its confide- ntiality, if it is necessary for fairly disposing of the case, unless it can be shown that its disclosure would otherwise be injurious to public interest. "

"....    There might be difference of views between the Chief Justice of the High Court and the Chief Justice of India but so long as the views are held bona fide by the two Chief Justices, we do not see why they should be worried about the disclosure of their views? Why should they feel embarrassed by public discu-ssion or debate of the views expressed by them when they have acted bona fide with the greatest care and circums-pection and after mature deliberation. We also find it difficult to agree that if the differing views of the two Chief Justices become known to the outside world, the public discussion and debate that might ensue might have the effect of lowering the dignity and prestige of one or the other of the two Chief Justices. When the differing views of the two Chief Justices are made public as a result of disclosure, there would certainly be public discussion and debate in regard to those views with some criticizing one view and some criticizing the other, but that cannot be helped in a democracy where the right of free speech and expression is a guaranteed right and if the views have been expressed by the two Chief Justices with proper care and deliberation and a full sense of responsibility in discharge of a constitutional duty, there is no reason why the two Chief Justices should worry about public criticism. We fail to see how such public criticism could have the effect of undermining the prestige and dignity of one or the other Chief Justice. So long as the two Chief Justices have acted honestly and bona fide with full consciousness of the heavy responsibility that rests upon them in matters of this kind, we do not think that any amount of public criticism can affect their prestige and dignity. But if either on the two Chief Justices has acted carelessly or improperly or irresponsibly or out of oblique motive, his view would certainly toe subjected public criticism and censure and that might show him in poor light and bring him down in the esteem of the people, but that will be the price which he will have to pay for his remissness in discharge of his constitutional duty, No Chief Justice or Judge should be allowed to hide his improper or irresponsible action under the cloak of secrecy. If any Chief Justice or Judge has behaved improperly or irresponsibly or in a manner not befitting the high office he holds, there is no reason why his action should not be exposed to public gaze. We believe in an open Government and openness in Government does not mean openness merely in the functioning of the executive arm of the State. The same openness must characterise the functioning of the judicial apparatus including judicial appointments and transfers. Today the process of judicial appointments and transfers is shrouded in mystery. The public does not know how judges are selected and appointed or transferred and whether any and if so what, principles and norms govern this process. The exercise of the power of appointment and transfer remains a sacred ritual whose mystery is confined only to a handful of high priests, namely, the Chief Justice of the High Court, the Chief Minister of the State, the Law Minister of the Central Government and the Chief Justice of India in case of appointment or non-appointment or non-appointment of a High Court Judge and the Law Minister of the Central Government and the Chief Justice of India in case of appointment of a Supreme Court Judge or transfer of a High Court Judge. The mystique of this process is kept secret and confidential between just a few individuals, not more than two or four as the case may be, and the possibility cannot therefore be ruled cut that howsoever highly placed may be these individuals, the process may on occasions result in making of wrong appointments and transfers and may also at times, though fortunately very rare, lend itself to nepotism, political as well as personal and even trade-off. We do not see any reason why this process of appointment and transfer of Judges should be regarded as so sacrosanct that no one should be able to pry into it and it should be protected against disclosure at all events and in all circumstances. In fact, the possibility of subsequent disclosure would act a an effective check against carelessness, impetuosity, arbitrariness or mala fides on the part of the Central Government, the Chief Justice of the High Court and the Chief Justice of India and ensure bona fide and correct approach, objective and dispassionate consideration, mature thought and deliberation and proper application of mind on their part in discharging their constitutional duty in regard to appointments and transfers of Judges. ...."

blds vfrfjDr iVuk mPp U;k;ky; ds rRdkyhu eq[; U;k;k/kh'k ds-ch-,u- flag dk LFkkukUrj.k tc enzkl mPp U;k;ky; ds fy, dj fn;k Fkk rks Hkkjr ds rRdkyhu eq[; U;k;k/kh'k okbZ-oh- pUnzpwM+ us vius gh U;k;ky; ¼mPpre U;k;ky;½ esa bl ckr dk gyQukek nkf[ky fd;k fd bl LFkkukUrj.k ds ihNs dksbZ nqHkkZouk ugha fNih gSA

tc iwoZ esa bl izdkj ds mnkgj.k ekStwn gSa fd eq[; U;k;k/kh'k Lo;a gyQukek nkf[ky djrs gSa vkSj mPpre U;k;ky; dk;Zikfydk dks fu;qfDr laca/kh nLrkost lkoZtfud djus dk vkns'k ns ldrh gS rks vc ;g fNiko D;ksa\ dqN le; iwoZ blh mPp U;k;ky; ds ,d U;k;ewfrZ dh fu;qfDr dks pqukSrh nh x;h rks ihB ds bl vkns'k ds ckotwn fd ^,izSty fjiksVZ* lhy cUn fyQkQs esa dksVZ esa nkf[ky dh tk;] nkf[ky ugha dh x;h cfYd ekeys dks mPpre U;k;ky; esa LFkkuUrfjr dj fn;k x;k vkSj og ^vizSty fjiksVZ* lkoZtfud ugha gqbZA

dqN le; iwoZ fnYyh mPp U;k;ky; ds eq[; U;k;k/kh'k vftr izdk'k 'kkg us mPpre U;k;ky; esa viuh fu;qfDr u gksus ij fcnkbZ lekjksg esa dgk Fkk ^^;g turk r; djs fd mudh fu;qfDr mPpre U;k;ky; esa D;ksa ugha gqbZ** mUgksaus vkxs dksysft;e }kjk ttksa dh fu;qfDr ij dgk fd ;fn fdlh tt dh ojh;rk dks utjvankt fd;k tkrk gS rks mlds fy, dkj.k crk;k tkuk pkfg,A mudh bl vo/kkj.kk dks etcwrh iznku djrs gq, ns'k ds dbZ vU; eq[; U;k;k/kh'kksa ,oa U;k;fonkas us dgk dksysft;e }kjk ttksa dh fu;qfDr;ksa esa ;ksX;rk dks rjthg u nsdj lkSnsckth gksrh gSA

ttst dh Opaque fu;qfDr iz.kkyh ij laln dh LFkk;h lfefr ds Views dqN bl izdkj gSa&
"The closed system prevailing now is not getting meritorious persons called to the Bench... till the warrant of appointment is issued by the president, it is maintained as secret. It is the democratic principle. Committee further said that aspirants name merits and the selections process shall be made public and transparent."

U;k; nsus dh i}fr (Justice Delivery system) esa odhyksa o ttst  nksuks dh  honesty o Integrity dk cgqr vge jksy gS 'kk;n ;gh dkj.k Fkk fd odkyr dks Noble profession o ttst dks 'My Lords' dgk x;kA blfy, ttksa dh fu;qfDr esa Entry Point ¼fopkj ds fy, ukeksa ds p;u½ ij gh lcls vf/kd lko/kkuh cjrus dh vko';drk gksrh gSA

vkt tc ns'k esa Hkz"Vkpkj fodjky :i /kkj.k dj pqdk gS] ftls dkuwuh vL= izgkj ls gh ijkLr fd;k tk ldrk gS ftlds fy, l{ke dkuwu] ikjn'khZ U;k; iz.kkyh rFkk bekunkj] fu"i{k QSlyk nsus okys ttksa dh vko';drk gSA gekjs lafo/kku esa U;k;ikfydk dk Concept vesfjdk ls fy;k x;k gS tgk¡ 19oha lnh ls gh U;k;k/kh'kksa dh fu;qfDr lh/ks fcuk jktuhfrd gLr{ksi ds dh tkrh gS tcfd gekjs ;gk¡ ttksa dh fu;qfDr izfØ;k u flQZ vikjn'khZ gS cfYd mlesa ?ku?kksj jktuhfrd gLr{ksi Hkh gksrk gSA

ttt dh fu;qfDr esa bUgha fofHkUu izdkj ds gLr{ksiksa@Hkz"Vkpkjksa dks Nqikus ds fy, gj laHko dksf'k'ksa gksrh gSa bldks tu lkekU; rks NksfM+;s blds vk/kkj LrEHk odhy Hkh u tku ik;s fd fdu&fdu ds ukeksa ij fopkj gks jgk gS] u tku ik;s fd fdl Criteria ij fopkj gks jgk gSA

vikjnf'kZrk ¼xksiuh;rk½ Hkz"Vkpkj dh tuuh gS bl ckr ls izekf.kr gksrh gS fd nqfu;k ds nl Hkz"Vre ns'kksa esa fdlh esa Hkh lwpuk dk vf/kdkj ugha gS tcfd nl lcls bekunkj ns'kksa esa ukS esa vf/kdkj dh vktknh gSA laoS/kkfud laLFkkvksa esa ikjnf'kZrk ds vHkko esa gh Hkz"Vkpkj dh tM+s QSy pqdh gSaA fu;qfDr ds igys ukeksa dks xksiuh; j[kus dk dkj.k Hkh 'kk;n ;gh gS fd ,d ckj uke pys tkus vkSj okjaV tkjh gks tkus ds ckn fQj dksbZ dqN ugha dj ldrkA

vHkh ckj ls fu;qfDr ds fy, ,d ;ksX;rk gS fd odhy dk nl o"kZ iqjkuk bUjksyes.V 'Right to practice' dk gksuk pkfg,A vc iz'u mBrk gS fd 10 o"kZ ds bUjksyes.V okys rks gtkjksa odhy gSa muesa ls fdldks pquk tk jgk gS blds fy, ekin.M fu/kkZfjr djuk vko';d gSA fcuk Criteria fu/kkZfjr fd, ukeksa dks vxzlkfjr djuk Arbitrariness dh Js.kh esa vkrk gSA brus egRoiw.kZ in ij fu;qfDr vxj fcuk Criteria fu/kkZfjr fd;s gksrh gS rks ;g vlaoS/kkfud fu;qfDr dh gh Js.kh esa vk;sxhA

vkt mPp U;k;ky; o mPpre U;k;ky; ds fu;qfDr e.My ¼dksysft;e½ dh fu;qfDr izfØ;k 'Tap on the Shoulder Method' ij vk/kfjr gS tks u flQZ xksiuh; gS cfYd xSj tokcnsg Hkh gS vkSj blh dk Qk;nk mBkrs gq, dsUnz ljdkj U;k;k/kh'kksa dh fu;qfDr dk vf/kdkj vius gkFk esa ysus ds fy, ,u-ts-,-lh- yxk;h ftls lqizhe dksVZ us U;k; esa gLr{ksi ekurs gq, [kkfjt djrs gq, fu;qfDr dk vf/kdkj vius gh ikl lqjf{kr j[kkA

vc ;fn bl laoS/kkfud laLFkk esa tu fo'okl dh cgkyh djuh gS rks ttst dh fu;qfDr izfØ;k dks iw.kZ ikjn'khZ cukuk gksxkA bl vksj lwpuk,a lkoZtfud djuk ,d egRoiw.kZ izLFkku fcUnq gS ijUrq eafty gkfly djus ds fy, vko';d gS Deserving dh Desirability dks Eligibility dh Criteria ds fudl ij dldj gh Suitability eki dj fu;qfDr izfØ;k dks vkxs c<+k;k tk;A