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राजनीति के अपराधीकरण पर अंकुश का अहम फैसला

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fo/kkf;dk o dk;Zikfydk ls iwjh rjg fujk'k gks pqdh vke turk ds fy, mPpre U;k;ky; dk ;g fu.kZ; ?kus va/ksjs esa flYoj ykbfVfuax dh rjg gSA

geus ckj&ckj ;g fy[kk gS fd vc bl ns'k dks rFkk yksdra= dks cpkus ds fy, ek= ,d vk'kk U;k;ikfydk ls gh jg x;h gSA vius yksdfgrdkjh QSlyks ¼tks jktuhfrKksa] usrkvksa] vQljksa ds ywVikV ds fo#) gksrs gSa½ ds dkj.k U;k;kikfydk jktuhfrd nyksa o muds nYyksa dh vka[k dh fdjfdjh cu x;h gSA

gekjs ns'k dh jktuhfr esa vijk/k ,sls ?kqy fey x;k gS tSls ikuh esa vkDlhtuA vkt 99 izfr'kr ny rFkk 98 izfr'kr usrk vijk/kh gSa] ;s ckr vyx gS fd dqN dk vijk/k mtkxj ugha gksrk ftudk mtkxj gks tkrk gS muij dkjZokbZ ugha gksrhA

tSls gh dksbZ ,slk fu.kZ; fdlh Hkh Qksje ls vkrk gS tks bu nyksa o buds usrkvksa ds Hkz"Vkpkj esa ck/kd gksrk gS budks rqjUr mlds nq#i;ksx dh vk'kadk gksus yxrh gS tcfd bu vk'kadkvksa dk dksbZ rkfdZd vk/kkj ugha gksrk gSA

fiNys pUn fnuksa esa dqN ,sls fu.kZ; fofHkUu laLFkkvksa ls vk;s gSa tks bu nyksa dh LosPNkpkfjrk ij yxke yxkus ,oa 'kqfprk LFkkfir djus esa lgk;d gks ldrs gSaA

mPpre U;k;ky; us tks O;oLFkk nh gS mlds vUrxZr nks lky ls vf/kd dh ltk eqdjZj gksrs gh lkalnh o fo/kk;dh rqjar pyh tk;sxhA bl QSlys ls mu usrkvksa dks vo'; jkgr fey x;h gS tks blds vkus ls igys tuizfrfuf/kRo dkuwu dh /kkjk 8¼4½ dk ykHk ik jgs gSaA

bu ;kfpdkvksa ds lkFk&lkFk eq[; pquko vk;qDr dh mPp U;k;ky; iVuk ds vkns'k ds fo#) nk;j fo'ks"k vuqefr ;kfpdk [kkfjt djrs gq, ;g Hkh vo/kkfjr dj fn;k gS fd tks O;fDr tsy esa jgdj ernku ugha dj ldrk og pquko Hkh ugha yM ldrk ftlds dkj.k vc tsy esa jgdj pquko yM us ij Hkh ikcanh yx x;h gSA
jktuhfr dks vijk/khdj.k ls dqN gn rd eqDr djkus okyk ;g QSlyk rhu tufgr ;kfpdkvksa o nks fo'ks"k vuqefr vihy dks fuLrkfjr djrs gq, vk;k gSA nks tufgr ;kfpdk,a 490 lu~ 2005 o 231 lu~ 2005 Øe'k% fyyh Fkkel o ,l-,u 'kqDyk] egklfpo yksd izgjh us tuizfrfuf/kRo dkuwu dh /kkjk 8¼4½ dks valoS/kkfud (ultra vires) ?kksf"kr djus ds fy, mPpre U;k;ky; esa nkf[ky dh Fkh ftldh lquokbZ djrs
gq, ekuuh; U;k;ewfrZ ,-ds- iVuk;d ,oa U;k;ewwfrZ lq/kka'kq T;ksfr eq[kksik/;k; us ;g vfr egRoiw.kZ yksdfgrdkjh fu.kZ; fn;kA bu nks ;kfpdkvksa ds lanHkZ esa gh iVuk mPp U;k;ky; ds vf/koDrk olar dqekj pkS/kjh dh tufgr ;kfpdk la- 690 lu~ 2004 dk fuiVkjk ihB us fd;kA bu ;kfpdkvksa esa ;kfpdkdrkZ fyyh Fkkel dh vksj ls lhfu;j dkSafly Qkyh ,l- ukjheu o yksd izgjh ds egklfpo ,l-,u- 'kqDyk dks rFkk dsUnz ljdkj dh vksj ls ,fM'kuy lkWyhflVj tujy fl)kFkZ ywFkjk ,oa ikjl dqgkn us ihB ds le{k vius rdksZa dks j[kkA vius QSlys esa ihB us ;kfpdk drkZvksa ds rdksZa dks v|r djrs gq, fy[kk gS&

4... "Mr. Nariman cited a Constitution Bench judgment of this Court in Election Commission, India v. Saka Venkata Rao (AIR 1953 SC 210) in which it has been held that Article 191 lays down the same set of disqualifications for election as well as for continuing as a member. Mr. Nariman and Mr. Shukla submitted that sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act, insofar as it provides that the disqualification under subsections (1), (2) and (3) of Section 8 for being elected as a member of either House of Parliament or the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of State shall not take effect in the case of a person who is already a member of Parliament or Legislature of a State on the date of the conviction if he files an appeal or a revision in respect of the conviction or the sentence within three months till the appeal or revision is disposed of by the Court, is in contravention of the provisions of clause (1) of Articles 102 and 191 of the Constitution.

5. Mr. Shukla referred to the debates of the Constituent Assembly on Article 83 of the Draft Constitution, which corresponds to Article 102 of the Constitution. In these debates, Mr. Shibban Lal Saksena, a member of the Constituent Assembly moved an Amendment No. 1590 on 19.05.1949 to provide that when a person who, by virtue of conviction becomes disqualified and is on the date of disqualification a member of Parliament, his seat shall, notwithstanding anything in this Article, not become vacant by reason of the disqualification until three months have elapsed from the date thereof or, if within those three months an appeal or petition for revision is brought in respect of the conviction or the sentence, until that appeal or petition is disposed of, but during any period during which his membership is preserved by this provision, he shall not sit or vote. Mr. Shukla submitted that this amendment to Article 83 of the Draft Constitution was not adopted in the Constituent Assembly. Instead, in sub-clause (e) of clause (1) of Articles 102 and 191 of the Constitution, it was provided that Parliament may make a law providing disqualifications besides those mentioned in sub-clauses (a), (b), (c) and (d) for a person being chosen as, and for being, a member of either House of Parliament and of the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of a State. Mr. Shukla submitted that despite the fact that a provision similar to sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act was not incorporated in the Constitution by the Constituent Assembly, Parliament has enacted sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act.

6. According to Mr. Nariman and Mr. Shukla, in the absence of a provision in Articles 102 and 191 of the Constitution conferring power on Parliament to make a provision protecting sitting members of either House of Parliament or the Legislative Assembly or the Legislative Council of a State, from the disqualifications it lays down for a person being chosen as a member of Parliament or a State Legislature, Parliament lacks legislative powers to enact sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act and subsection (4) of Section 8 of the Act is therefore ultra vires the Constitution. ...

7... He submitted that in B.R. Kapur v. State of T.N. and Another [(2001) 7 SCC 231] a Constitution Bench of this Court reversed the aforesaid judicial view and held that conviction, and the sentence it carries, operate against the accused in all their rigour until set aside in appeal, and a disqualification that attaches to the conviction and sentence applies as well. He submitted that this later view has been reiterated by a Constitution Bench of this Court in K. Prabhakaran v. P. Jayarajan etc. [(2005) 1 SCC 754]. .... He cited the decision in Navjot Singh Sidhu v. State of Punjab and Another ([2007) 2 SCC 574] in which this Court has clarified that under sub-section (1) of Section 389 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 power has been conferred on the Appellate Court not only to suspend the execution of the sentence and to grant bail, but also to suspend the operation of the order appealed against, which means the order of conviction. ...

8. Mr. Nariman and Mr. Shukla submitted that in K. Prabhakaran v. P. Jayarajan etc. (supra) the validity of subsection (4) of Section 8 of the Act was not under challenge and only a reference was made to the Constitution Bench of this Court on certain questions which arose in civil appeals against judgments delivered by the High Court in election cases under the Act. .... They submitted that the opinion expressed by the Constitution Bench of this Court in K. Prabhakaran v. P. Jayarajan etc. (supra) regarding the purpose for which Parliament classified sitting members of Parliament and State Legislatures into a separate category and protected them from the disqualifications by the saving provision in subsection (4) of Section 8 of the Act are obiter dicta and are not binding ratio on the issue of the validity of sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act. ..."
;kfpdk drkZvksa ds rdksZa dks dkVus okys ,-,l-th- fl}kFkZ ywFkjk ds dFku dks m|`r djrs gq, ihB us dgk&

"10. Mr. Siddharth Luthra, learned ASG appearing for the Union of India in Writ Petition (C) 231 of 2005, submitted that the validity of sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act has been upheld by the Constitution Bench of this Court in K. Prabhakaran v. P. Jayarajan etc. (supra). He submitted that while answering question no.3, the Constitution Bench has held in Prabhakaran’s case that the purpose of carving out a saving in sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act is not to confer an advantage on sitting members of Parliament or of a State Legislature but to protect the House. ...

11. Mr. Luthra next submitted that the reality of the Indian judicial system is that acquittals in the levels of the Appellate Court such as the High Court are very high and it is for this reason that Parliament has provided in subsection (4) of Section 8 of the Act that disqualification pursuant to conviction or sentence in the case of sitting members should stand deferred till the appeal or revision is decided by the Appellate or the Revisional Court. ..."
ihB us ,-,l-th- ikjl dqgkn dh cgl dks m/k`r djrs gq, dgk&

"12. Mr. Paras Kuhad, learned ASG, appearing for the Union of India in Writ Petition (C) No.490 of 2005 also relied on the judgment of the Constitution Bench of this Court in K. Prabhakaran v. P. Jayarajan etc. (supra) on the validity of sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act and the reasoning given in the answer to question no.3 in the aforesaid judgment of this Court. ...He also referred to the provisions of Articles 101(3)(a) and 190 (3)(a) of the Constitution to argue that a member of Parliament or a State Legislature will vacate a seat only when he becomes subject to any disqualification mentioned in clause (1) of Article 102 or clause (1) of Article 191, as the case may be, and this will happen only after a decision is casino online taken by the President or the Governor that the member has become disqualified in accordance with the mechanism provided in Article 103 or Article 192 of the Constitution.

13. Mr. Kuhad further submitted that Mr. Nariman is not right in his submission that the remedy of a sitting member who is convicted or sentenced and gets disqualified under sub-sections (1), (2) or (3) of Section 8 of the Act is to move the Appellate Court under Section 389 of the Code of Criminal Procedure for stay of his conviction. He submitted that the Appellate Court does not have any power under Section 389, Cr.P.C. to stay the disqualification which would take effect from the date of conviction and therefore a safeguard had to be provided in subsection (4) of Section 8 of the Act that the disqualification, despite the conviction or sentence. ..."
nksuks i{kksa ds rdksZa dks lquus ds ckn ihB us viuh Finding nsrs gq, fy[kk&

"14. We will first decide the issue raised before us in these writ petitions that Parliament lacked the legislative power to enact sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act as this issue was not at all considered by the Constitution Bench of this Court in the aforesaid case of K. Prabhakaran (supra). In The Empress v. Burah and Another [(1878) 5 I.A. 178] the Privy Council speaking through Selborne J. laid down the following fundamental principles for interpretation of a written constitution laying down the powers of the Indian Legislature:

“The Indian Legislature has powers expressly limited by the Act of the Imperial Parliament which created it; and it can, of course, do nothing beyond the limits which circumscribes these powers. But, when acting within these limits, it is not in any sense an agent or delegate of the Imperial Parliament, but has, and was intended to have, plenary powers of legislation, as large, and of the same nature, as those of Parliament itself. The established Courts of Justice, when a question arises whether the prescribed limits have been exceeded, must of necessity determine that question; and the only way in which they can properly do so, is by looking to the terms of the instrument by which, affirmatively, the legislative powers were created, and by which, negatively, they are restricted. If what has been done is legislation within the general scope of the affirmative words which give the power, and if it violates no express condition or restriction by which that power is limited (in which category would, of course, be included any Act of the Imperial Parliament at variance with it), it is not for any Court of Justice to inquire further, or to enlarge constructively those conditions and restrictions.”

The correctness of the aforesaid principles with regard to interpretation of a written constitution has been reaffirmed by the majority of Judges in Kesavananda Bharti v. State of Kerala (AIR 1973 SC 1465) (See the Constitutional Law of India, H.M. Seervai, Fourth Edition, Vol.I, para 2.4 at page 174). Hence, when a question is raised whether Parliament has exceeded the limits of its powers, courts have to decide the question by looking to the terms of the instrument by which affirmatively, the legislative powers were created, and by which negatively, they are restricted....

15. Article 248 similarly provides that Parliament has exclusive power to make any law with respect to any matter not enumerated in the Concurrent List (List III) or State List (List II) of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution. Therefore, Article 246(1) read with Entry 97 and Article 248 only provide that in residuary matters (other than matters enumerated in List II and List III) Parliament will have power to make law. To quote from Commentary on the Constitution of India by Durga Das Basu (8th Edition) Volume 8 at page 8988:

“In short, the principle underlying Article 248, read with Entry 97 of List I, is that a written Constitution, which divides legislative power as between two legislatures in a federation, cannot intend that neither of such Legislatures shall go without power to legislate with respect of any subject simply because that subject has not been specifically mentioned nor can be reasonably comprehended by judicial interpretation to be included in any of the Entries in the Legislative Lists. To meet such a situation, a residuary power is provided, and in the Indian Constitution, this residuary power is vested in the Union Legislature. Once, therefore, it is found that a particular subject-matter has not been assigned to the competence of the State Legislature, “it leads to the irresistible inference that (the Union) Parliament would have legislative competence to deal with the subject matter in question.”....

We may note that no power is vested in the State Legislature to make law laying down disqualifications of membership of the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of the State and power is vested in Parliament to make law laying down disqualifications also in respect of members of the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of the State. For these reasons, we are of the considered opinion that the legislative power of Parliament to enact any law relating to disqualification for membership of either House of Parliament or Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of the State can be located only in Articles 102(1) (e) and 191(1)(e) of the Constitution and not in Articles 246(1) read with Entry 97 of List I of the Seventh Schedule and Article 248 of the Constitution. We do not, therefore, accept the contention of Mr. Luthra that the power to enact sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act is vested in Parliament under Articles 246(1) read with Entry 97 of List I of the Seventh Schedule and 248 of the Constitution, if not in Articles 102 (1)(e) and 191 (1)(e) of the Constitution. ...

16. In the language of the Constitution Bench of this Court in Election Commission, India v. Saka Venkata Rao (supra), Article 191(1) [which is identically worded as Article 102(1)] lays down “the same set of disqualifications for election casino online as well as for continuing as a member”. Parliament thus does not have the power under Articles 102(1)(e) and 191(1)(e) of the Constitution to make different laws for a person to be disqualified for being chosen as a member and for a person to be disqualified for continuing as a member of Parliament or the State Legislature. To put it differently, if because of a disqualification a person cannot be chosen as a member of Parliament or State Legislature, for the same disqualification, he cannot continue as a member of Parliament or the State Legislature. This is so because the language of Articles 102(1)(e) and 191(1)(e) of the Constitution is such that the disqualification for both a person to be chosen as a member of a House of Parliament or the State Legislature or for a person to continue as a member of Parliament or the State Legislature has to be the same. ....

19. Accordingly, sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act which carves out a saving in the case of sitting members of Parliament or State Legislature from the disqualifications under sub-sections (1), (2) and (3) of Section 8 of the Act or which defers the date on which the disqualification will take effect in the case of a sitting member of Parliament or a State Legislature is beyond the powers conferred on Parliament by the Constitution.

20. Looking at the affirmative terms of Articles 102(1)(e) and 191(1)(e) of the Constitution, we hold that Parliament has been vested with the powers to make law laying down the same disqualifications for person to be chosen as a member of Parliament or a State Legislature and for a sitting member of a House of Parliament or a House of a State Legislature. We also hold that the provisions of Article 101(3)(a) and 190(3)(a) of the Constitution expressly prohibit Parliament to defer the date from which the disqualification will come into effect in case of a sitting member of Parliament or a State Legislature. Parliament, therefore, has exceeded its powers conferred by the Constitution in enacting sub-section
(4) of Section 8 of the Act and accordingly subsection(4) of Section 8 of the Act is ultra vires the Constitution. ...

22. As we have held that Parliament had no power to enact sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act and accordingly sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act is ultra vires the Constitution, it is not necessary for us to go into the other issue raised in these writ petitions that subsection (4) of Section 8 of the Act is violative of Article 14 of the Constitution. ...

23. The only question that remains to be decided is whether our declaration in this judgment that sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act is ultra vires the Constitution should affect disqualifications already incurred under subsections (1), (2) and (3) of Section 8 of the Act by sitting members of Parliament and State Legislatures who have filed appeals or revisions against their conviction within a period of three months and their appeals and revisions are still pending before the concerned court. Under subsections (1), (2) and (3) of Section 8 of the Act, the disqualification takes effect from the date of conviction for any of the offences mentioned in the sub-sections and remains in force for the periods mentioned in the subsections. Thus, there may be several sitting members of Parliament and State Legislatures who have already incurred disqualification by virtue of a conviction covered under sub-section (1), or sub-section (2) or sub-section (3) of Section 8 of the Act. In Golak Nath and Others vs. State of Punjab and Another (AIR 1967 SC 1643), Subba Rao, C.J. speaking on behalf of himself, Shah, Sikri, Shelat and Vaidialingam, JJ. has held that Articles 32, 141, 142 of the Constitution are couched in such a wide and elastic terms as to enable this Court to formulate legal doctrines to meet the ends of justice and has further held that this Court has the power not only to declare the law but also to restrict the operation of the law as declared to future and save the transactions, whether statutory or otherwise, that were effected on the basis of the earlier law. Sitting members of Parliament and State Legislature who have already been convicted for any of the offences mentioned in sub-section (1), (2) and (3) of Section 8 of the Act and who have filed appeals or revisions which are pending and are accordingly saved from the disqualifications by virtue of sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act should not, in our considered opinion, be affected by the declaration now made by us in this judgment. This is because the knowledge that sitting members of Parliament or State Legislatures will no longer be protected by sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act will be acquired by all concerned only on the date this judgment is pronounced by this Court. As has been observed by this Court in Harla v. State of Rajasthan (AIR 1951 SC 467):

“……..it would be against the principles of natural justice to permit the subjects of a State to be punished or penalized by laws of which they had no knowledge and of which they could not even with exercise of due diligence have acquired any knowledge.”

However, if any sitting member of Parliament or a State Legislature is convicted of any of the offences mentioned in sub-sections (1), (2) and (3) of Section 8 of the Act and by virtue of such conviction and/or sentence suffers the disqualifications mentioned in sub-sections (1), (2) and (3) of Section 8 of the Act after the pronouncement of this judgment, his membership of Parliament or the State Legislature, as the case may be, will not be saved by subsection (4) of Section 8 of the Act which we have by this judgment declared as ultra vires the Constitution notwithstanding that he files the appeal or revision against the conviction and /or sentence."

bl ihB us phQ bysD'ku dfe'uj bR;kfn cuke tu pkSdhnkj (People watch) ,oa vU; dh lafo/kku ds vuqPNsn 136 ds vUrZxr iVuk mPp U;k;ky; ds fo#) nk;j vihy 3040&3041 lu~ 2004 dks fuLrkfjr djrs gq, ;g O;oLFkk Hkh ns nh fd tks O;fDr oksV ugha ns ldrk o pquko Hkh ugha yM ldrkA
bu vihyksa dks fuLrkfjr djrs gq, ekuuh; mPpre U;k;ky; us dgk&

"5. Writ petitions C.W.J.C. No.4880 of 2004 and C.W.J.C. No.4988 of 2004 were filed in the Patna High Court contending that a person, who is confined in prison, whether under a sentence of imprisonment or transportation or otherwise, or is in the lawful custody of the police is not entitled to vote by virtue of sub-section (5) of Section 62 of the 1951 Act and accordingly is not an “elector” and is, therefore, not qualified to contest elections to the House of People or the Legislative Assembly of a State because of the provisions in Sections 4 and 5 of the 1951 Act. By the impugned common order, the High Court accepted this contention in the writ petitions and held:

“A right to vote is a statutory right, the Law gives it, the Law takes it away. Persons convicted of crime are kept away from elections to the Legislature, whether to State Legislature or Parliament, and all other public elections. The Court has no hesitation in interpreting the Constitution and the Laws framed under it, read together, that persons in the lawful custody of the Police also will not be voters, in which case, they will neither be electors. The Law temporarily takes away the power of such persons to go anywhere near the election scene. To vote is a statutory right. It is privilege to vote, which privilege may be taken away. In that case, the elector would not be qualified, even if his name is on the electoral rolls. The name is not struck off, but the qualification to be an elector and the privilege to vote when in the lawful custody of the police is taken away.”

6. Aggrieved, by the findings of the High Court, the appellants have filed these appeals. We have heard learned counsel for the parties and we do not find any infirmity in the findings of the High Court in the impugned common order that a person who has no right to vote by virtue of the provisions of sub-section (5) of Section 62 of the 1951 Act is not an elector and is therefore not qualified to contest the election to the House of the People or the Legislative Assembly of a State."

mPpre U;k;ky; ds nwjxkeh izHkko okys ml QSlys dk fojks/k dsoy os usrk ;k ny gh djsaxs ftudk otwn vijkf/k;ksa ij fVdk gS rFkk tks jktuhfr ds vijk/khdj.k ds i{k/kj gksaxs D;ksafd ;g QSlyk yksdra= esa tu vkLFkk dks cgky djus rFkk jktuhfr ds vkijk/khdj.k ij izHkkoh vadq'k yxkus okyk gS tks dke jktuhfrd nyksa us vktrd ugha fd;kA

Last Updated on Sunday, 03 May 2015 14:48

सामाजिक विघटन रोकने को लखनऊ पीठ का अहम आदेश

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lafo/kku dh ewy Hkkouk ds foijhr lÙkk ds fy, ikxy gks pqds jktuhfrd nyksa dqlhZ ds nYyksa] usrkvksa dh fod`r ekufldrk ij vadq'k yxkus ds fy, bykgkckn mPp U;k;ky; dh y[kuÅ ihB ds ofj"B U;k;ewfrZ mekukFk flag o U;k;ewfrZ egsUnz n;ky dh [k.M ihB us jktuhfr izsfjr tkrh; jSfy;ksa ij jksd yxkdj lekt dks [kaM&[kaM VqdM ksa esa ckaVus ds bu LokFkhZ rRoksa ds dqfRlr iz;kl ij dqN gn rd ikuh Qsj fn;k gS ftldk Åijh rkSj ij rks Hkkjh eu ls lHkh Lokxr dj jgs gSa ysfdu vUnj gh vUnj jks jgs gSaA
yksdlHkk ds vklUu pquko ij mPpU;k;ky; ds bl vkns'k ls jktuhfrd nyksa esa [kklh cspSuh gSA ihB us ;g Lohdkj fd;k gS fd tkfrxr jSfy;ksa ls lekt caVrk gS tks lafo/kku dh ewy Hkkouk ds f[kykQ gSA dsUnzh; lwpuk vk;ksx] mPpre U;k;ky; ds QSlyksa ds ckn jktuhfrd nyksa@usrkvksa dks ;g rhljk tksj dk >Vdk gS tks /khjs ls u yx dj tksj ls gh yxk gSA
ekuuh; ofj"B U;k;ewfrZ mekukFk flag o U;k;ewfrZ egsUnz n;ky dh [k.M ihB us vf/koDrk eksrhyky ;kno dh tufgr ;kfpdk dk laKku ysrs gq, ;g vkns'k ikfjr fd;k rFkk lacaf/kr i{kdkjksa dks uksfVl tkjh djrs gq, mudks viuk i{k izLrqr djus dk vkns'k fn;k gSA
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Hk;] Hkz"Vkpkj] xqykeh vkSj dkfgfy;r gekjs [kwu ugha cfYd thu esa gS ftldh otg ls ge igys vaxzstksa ds xqyke Fks vc bu usrkvksa ds ftudk ,d ek= mn~ns'; gS ^ywV*A gesa jax ns clarh fQYe dk ,d Mk;ykx ;kn vk jgk gS "No Country is dgfev online casino perfect..... it is made perfect" ge blls iwjh rjg ls lger gSa gesa vaxzstksa ls dksbZ fxyk ugha gS os rks Fks gh yqVsjs ysfdu vc vktknh ds 63 o"kksZa esa geus vius ns'k dks Perfect cukus ds fy, D;k fd;k\geus viuk lafo/kku Hkh cuk;k rks vius ns'k dh turk] mldh pky] pfj= dks ns[kdj ugha cfYd dbZ ns'kksa dh udy Vhi djA ftu ns'kksa ls bu izko/kkuksa dks fy;k x;k muds pfj=] f'k{kk o lksp dks rks ns[krs] vius ns'k ds izfr mudh tks ftEesnkjh gS mls le>rsA D;k gekjs ns'k esa fdlh dh dksbZ ftEesnkjh lekt] ns'k ds izfr fn[kkbZ nsrh gSA ugha!
pUn vaxzstksa us ;gk¡ dh iqfyl] iVokjh ds cy ij gekjs Åij jkt fd;k Fkk 'kk;n blhfy, iqfyl dks vlhfer vf/kdkj ns fn, x;s FksA
oSls rks fØfeuy izkslhtj dksM (Cr. P.C.) esa 1973 esa la'kks/ku fd;k x;k ysfdu bldk ewy < kapk iqjkuk gh jgkA iqfyl dk psgjk] pky ogh jgk gka pfj= tks vaxzstksa ds le; Fkk blls Hkh [kjkc gks x;kA izFke lwpuk fjiksVZ ntZ djkus ls ysdj
pktZlhV nkf[ky gksus rd vki iwjh rjg iqfyl ds jgevks dje ij gSaA pkSdhnkj ls ysdj jkT;iky rd tkurs gSa fd eSfuiqys'ku ds fy, th-Mh- ¼jkstukepk½ de ls de 24 ?kaVs ihNs pyrh gSA
vkt ge pkan ij igqap ldrs gSa] cSad dEI;qVjkbt gks ldrs gSa] lqnwj xkaoksa esa 'khry is; iagqpk ldrs gSa rks gj Fkkus dks dEI;qVjkbt D;ksa ugha dj ldsa] ;g O;oLFkk D;ksa ugha cuk lds fd izkFkfedh flQZ dEI;qVj ij gh dgha Hkh ntZ gksxh ftl ij fnu] fnukad] le; vius vki vk tkrk gksA
vkf[kj vkt Hkh Hkkjrh; n.M lafgrk 1860 o bfoMsUl ,DV 1872 dk gh D;ksa py jgk gSA fiNys 150 o"kksZa esa fdruk dqN cny x;k Ms< lkS o"kksZa dks rks NksfM , vktknh ds bu N% n'kdksa esa Hkh ge bu dkuwuksa esa ,slk cnyko D;ksa ugha dj lds fd Hkz"Vkpkfj;ksa@vkijkf/k;ksa ds eu esa Hk; iSnk dj ldsaA D;k gekjh fo/kkf;dk bruh x;h xqtjh gS fd og viuh t:jr ds eqrkfcd dkuwu ugha cuk ldrh\ ;k dgk tk; fd cukuk ugha pkgrhA
fiNys dqN le; ls lk>k ljdkj dk izknqHkkZo gqvk gS blds igys vdsys ny dks iw.kZ cgqer feyrk FkkA 1971 o 1984 esa rks dkaxzsl dks bruk izp.M cgqer feyk Fkk fd ;fn og pkgrh rks iwjs lafo/kku o dkuwu esa vkHkwy pwy ifjorZu dj nsrh ysfdu LokFkZo'k mlus ,slk ugha fd;kA gekjh vkijkf/kd U;k; iz.kkyh esa fjQkjesVjh ifu'kesUV dh O;oLFkk gS ftlls Økbe fnu nwuk jkr pkSxquk c< k gSA ,d gh vijk/k ds fy, nks rjg dh O;oLFkk D;ksa\ ftl vijk/k ds fy, ,d NksVs deZpkjh ds fy, rqjUr izkFkfedh ntZ dj fxj¶rkj dj fy;k tkrk gS mlh vijk/k ds fy, cM s vQljksa] eaf=;ksa] eq[;eaf=;ksa] iz/kku ea=h ds fy, lSaD'ku dh t:jr iM rh gSA D;k ;g 'Equally before law' ds laoS/kkfud O;oLFkk dk [kqyk mya?ku ugha gSA
vijk/k ds fy, nks rjg dh O;oLFkk D;ksa\ ftl vijk/k ds fy, ,d NksVs deZpkjh ds fy, rqjUr izkFkfedh ntZ dj fxj¶rkj dj fy;k tkrk gS mlh vijk/k ds fy, cM s vQljksa] eaf=;ksa] eq[;eaf=;ksa] iz/kku ea=h ds fy, lSaD'ku dh t:jr iM rh gSA D;k ;g 'Equally before law' ds laoS/kkfud O;oLFkk dk [kqyk mya?ku ugha gSA
O;fDr] lekt o jk"Vª dks lcls vf/kd izHkkfor djus okys izko/kkuksa esa ,d gS Hkwfe vf/kxzg.k dkuwu ftldks vaxzstksa us r ls cuk;k Fkk fd ftldh tks tehu ge pkgsa] tSls pkgsa ys ysa ogha dkuwu vkt Hkh py jgk gS ftl d`f"k Hkwfe ls fdlkuksa dk ifjokj ih< h nj ih< h viuh vkftfodk pykrk gS ljdkjsa mldks vkSus&ikSus ewY; nsdj tcjnLrh ys ysrh gSa muds thou&;kiu dk lgkjk pyk tkrk gSA bl dkuwu dk orZeku Lo:i esa Qk;nk Hkz"Vkpkjh ljdkjsa mBk jgh gSa tks m|ksxifr;ksa@fcYMjksa ls iSlk ysdj tehu vf/kxzghr djds budks ns nsrh gSa ftls ;s lkS xquk ekfy;r yxkdj Qk;nk dekrs gSaA vkf[kj ;s m|ksxifr@fcYMj cktkj nj ij Lo;a fdlkuksa ls tehu D;ksa ugha [kjhnrsA bl dkuwu dks ;fn MªSdksfu;u ykW dh laKk nh tk; rks vfr'k;ksfor u gksxhA
bl fu;fr ls cuk;k Fkk fd ftldh tks tehu ge pkgsa] tSls pkgsa ys ysa ogha dkuwu vkt Hkh py jgk gS ftl d`f"k Hkwfe ls fdlkuksa dk ifjokj ih< h nj ih< h viuh vkftfodk pykrk gS ljdkjsa mldks vkSus&ikSus ewY; nsdj tcjnLrh ys ysrh gSa muds thou&;kiu dk lgkjk pyk tkrk gSA bl dkuwu dk orZeku Lo:i esa Qk;nk Hkz"Vkpkjh ljdkjsa mBk jgh gSa tks m|ksxifr;ksa@fcYMjksa ls iSlk ysdj tehu vf/kxzghr djds budks ns nsrh gSa ftls ;s lkS xquk ekfy;r yxkdj Qk;nk dekrs gSaA vkf[kj ;s m|ksxifr@fcYMj cktkj nj ij Lo;a fdlkuksa ls tehu D;ksa ugha [kjhnrsA bl dkuwu dks ;fn MªSdksfu;u ykW dh laKk nh tk; rks vfr'k;ksfor u gksxhA
bl rjg ds vusd dkuwu gS tks turk ds fy, vfgrdj gksrs gq, Hkh vktrd ykxw gSa u rks muij fdlh ljdkj dks lkspus dk le; gS u lq/kkjus dkA lu~ 1834 esa izFke fof/k vk;ksx Fkkel eSdkys (Thomas Macaulay) ds izfrf/kRo esa xfBr fd;k x;k ftlus vU; dkuwuksa ds lkFk&lkFk Hkkjrh; n.M lafgrk (Indian Penal Code) ds dksfMfQds'ku dh flQkfj'k dh FkhA
vktknh ds ckn jktusrkvksa us lkft'k ds rgr fdlh Hkh laLFkk dks LVsV~;wVjh ikoj ugha fn;kA fof/k vk;ksx Hkh bldk viokn ugha gSA Lora= Hkkjr esa loZ izFke fof/kvk;ksx dk xBu izeq[k U;k;fonksa dh vxqokbZ esa eq[; :i ls 1955 esa gqvk ftlus vcrd lSdM ksa fjiksVZl nh gaSA ysfdu mues ls vf/kdka'k dks dksbZ roTtks ugha nh x;hA bUgh fjiksV~Zl esa ls ,d fjiksVZ pkbYM ,C;wt esa ltk dks c< kus ds fy, Hkh Fkh ¼ftls vuns[kk fd;k x;k ifj.kfr jkBkSj o fuBkjh tSls dsl gq,½ orZeku fof/k vk;ksx us Hkh iqjkus xSj t:jh dkuwuksa ij iqukfoZpkj djus rFkk lekIr djus dh Hkh flQkfj'k dh gS ysfdu ljdkj ds dku ij twa jsaxrh ugha fn[k jgh gSA
1947 ds ckn tks Hkh dkuwu cus os flQZ lÙkk izkfIr dks /;ku esa j[kdj dsoy
turk dks csodwQ cukus vkSj oksV cVksjus ds fy, cusA usrkvksa dh fu;fr esa [kksV cgqr lkQ&lkQ >ydrk gSA lkjk dkjksckj pksj&pksj ekSlsjs dh rtZ ij py jgk gSA bu lkB o"kksZa] esa ge yksdiky fo/ks;d ikl djuk rks nwj is'k ugha dj lds vc ftl Lo:i esa yk;k tk jgk gS og flQZ turk dh vka[kksa esa /kwy >ksadus ls T;knk dqN ugha gS ;fn ;g ekStwnk Lo:i esa ikl Hkh gks tk;sxk rks nUrUk[k foghu 'ksj ls vf/kd dqN ugha gksxkA
vkt lcls cM h vko';drk gS ns'k dh fLFkfr dk lexz vkdyu djds blds pky] pfj=] n'kk] fn'kk dks /;ku esa j[kdj yksdfgrdkjh dkuwu cukus dhA dkuwu esa vkewy pwy ifjorZu djds tufo'okl iSnk djus dhA tks fd;k tk ldrk gS dkuwu cnydjA
tokcnsgh dk dkuwu&
vkt ns'k esa fdlh dh dksbZ ,dkmUV& fofyVh ugha gS] u tuizfrfuf/k dh] u ea=h] eq[;ea=h] iz/kkuea=h] vQlj@deZpkjh ;gka rd dh turk dh HkhA bl dkuwu esa ;g O;oLFkk gks fd vki tks Hkh dj jgs gSa mlds ifj.kke ds fy, ftEesnkj gksaxsA elyu ;fn dksbZ eq[;ea=h@ iz/kkuea=h@ ea=h@ tuizfrfuf/k ds fdlh dk;Z ls tu/ku ¼ljdkjh [ktkus½ dks fdlh Hkh izdkj dh gkfu iagqprh gS rks ml dk;Z ls lacaf/kr lHkh tuksa ¼deZpkjh ls ysdj iz/kkuea=h rd½ ij mudh ftEesnkjh ds fglkc ls tokcnsgh r; djds muls mldh HkjikbZ djk;h tk;A

Last Updated on Wednesday, 22 April 2015 19:59

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