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उच्चतम न्यायालय का अहम फैसला


gekjs ns'k ds vf/kdka'k usrkvksa] pkgs os ftrus cM s laoS/kkfud inksa ij cSBs gksa uhfr o fu;fr dHkh lkQ ugha jghA os gj le; ;su dsu izdkjs.k tu/ku ¼ljdkjh [ktkuk½ dHkh izR;{k rks dHkh ijks{k :i ls ywVdj vius futh@ikVhZ ds dke esa yxk ysuk pkgrs gSaA bl tu/ku dh ywV dks cpkus ds fy, mPpre U;k;ky; us vge QSlys ljdkjh [ktkus ls Nkius] fn[kkus] lqukus okys foKkiuksa ij eq[;eaf=;ksa@eaf=;ksa vkfn ds QksVks ij jksd yxk nhA

;g izk;% ns[kk x;k gS fd mPpre U;k;ky;@mPp U;k;ky; tc Hkh jk"Vªh; fgr] tufgr dk dksbZ Hkh QSlyk nsrs gSa rks ;s LokFkhZrRo ,sls fryfeykrs gSa tSls dqÙks dh iwaN ij iSj iM x;k gksA tufgr dk ;g QSlyk 12 o"kksZa dh yM kbZ ds ckn i= ;kfpdk o dkeu dkt dh tufgr ij vk;k gSA

mPpre U;k;ky; ds bl fu.kZ; ls ljdkjh foKkiuksa esa jk"Vªifr] iz/kkuea=h rFkk Hkkjr ds eq[; U;k;k/kh'k ds vfrfjDr vU; fdlh usrk dh QksVks Nkius ij izfrcU/k yx x;k gSA mPpre U;k;ky; us vius fu.kZ; esa dgk gS&
4.    The issues arising in the  writ  petitions  were  considered  by  this Court  in  an  earlier  round  of  exhaustive  hearings.  By   order   dated 23.04.2014, this Court, on consideration of the  respective  stands  of  the parties and by  relying  on  the  principles  laid  down  in  the  decisions specifically referred to in the  aforesaid  order  dated  23.04.2014,  inter alia, held that there is  no  dispute  that  “primary  cause  of  government advertisement is to use public funds to inform the public of  their  rights, obligations, and entitlements as well as  to  explain  Government  policies, programmes, services and initiatives.”  It was further held that  only  such government advertisements which do not  fulfil  the  above  requisites  will fall  foul  of  the  area  of  permissible   advertisements. This   Court acknowledged  the  fact  that  the   dividing   line   between   permissible advertisements that are a part of government  messaging  and  advertisements that are  “politically  motivated”  may  at  times  gets  blurred.   As  the materials laid before the Court by the parties were found to  be  inadequate for the purpose of evolving what would be  the  best  practices  keeping  in view the prevailing scenario in other jurisdictions across the  globe,  this Court felt the necessity of  constituting  a  Committee  consisting  of  (1) Prof. (Dr.) N.R. Madhava Menon, former Director, National Judicial  Academy, Bhopal (2) Mr. T.K. Viswanathan, former Secretary  General,  Lok  Sabha  and (3) Mr. Ranjit Kumar, Senior Advocate to go into the  matter  and  submit  a report to the Court.

lfefr dh fjiksVZ vkus ds ckn dksVZ us lfefr us tks xkbM ykbu nh mlh ij dsUnz ls mldk er ekaxkA

lfefr dh vuq'ka'kk vkSj ml ij dsUnz ds tokc dk fo'ys"k.k djrs gq, dksVZ us dgk ^^19.   Insofar as Canada(Ontario) is concerned, it appears  that  the  object of issuing a government advertisement is :  (i)  to  inform  the  public  of current or proposed government policies, programs or services  available  to them; (ii) to inform the public of their rights and  responsibilities  under the law and (iii) to encourage or discourage specific  social  behaviour  in public interest.  Such advertisements are not to include the name, voice  or image of any functionary of the  State  and  the  primary  objective  of  an advertisement ought not to be to foster a positive impression of the  ruling government or a negative impression of any person, group or  party  critical of the government.

20. In some of the foreign jurisdictions there is a mechanism  for  review of advertisements on fixed parameters even before  they  are  published  and publication/ issuance thereof only upon passing of  the  required  test. In Australia and United Kingdom,  there  is  an  added  emphasis  on  the  cost effectiveness  of  advertising   campaigns.In Australia, advertising campaigns of  more  than  a  particular pecuniary value i.e. 1million Australian dollars require to undergo a cost benefit  analysis  wherein  the best options to achieve the intended objective of the  campaign  has  to  be determined before launching the same.

21.   The good practices adopted in other jurisdictions as noticed above  do find adequate reflection in  the  recommendations  of  the  Committee  which further fortify our conviction to adopt the same.
22.   This will require the Court to consider the  different  aspects  of  a government advertisement campaign  highlighted  earlier  on  which  we  have reserved  our  comments.   The  first  is  with  regard  to  publication  of photographs of functionaries of the State  and  political  leaders  alonwith the advertisement issued.   There  can  be  no  manner  of  doubt  that  one government  advertisement  or  the  other  coinciding  with  some  event  or occasion is published practically every day. Publication of the  photograph of an individual be a State or party functionary not only has  the  tendency of associating that particular individual  with  either  the  achievement(s) sought to be highlighted or being the architect of the benefits  in  respect of which information is sought to be percolated. Alternatively, programmes/targets for the future  as advertised  carry  the impression  of  being  associated   with   the   particular individual(s).Photographs, therefore, have the potential  of  developing  the  personality cult and the image of  a  one  or  a  few  individuals  which  is  a  direct antithesis of democratic functioning.

23. The legitimate and permissible object of an advertisement, as earlier discussed, can always be achieved without publication of the  photograph of any particular functionary either in the State of  a  political  party.  We are, therefore, of the view that in departure to the views of the  Committee which recommended permissibility of publication of the  photographs  of  the President and Prime Minister of the country and Governor or  Chief  Minister of the State alongwith the advertisements,  there  should  be  an  exception only in the case of the President, Prime Minister and Chief Justice  of  the country who may themselves decide the question.   Advertisements  issued  to commemorate the anniversaries of acknowledged personalities like the  father of the nation would of course carry the photograph of the departed leader.

24. Insofar as the recommendation  with  regard  to  the  appointment  of Ombudsman is concerned, we are of the view that for ironing out the  creases that are bound to show from time  to  time  in  the  implementation  of the present directions and to oversee such implementation the government  should constitute a three member body  consisting  of  persons  with  unimpeachable neutrality and impartiality  and  who  have  excelled  in  their  respective fields.  We could have but we refrain from naming the specific  persons  and leave the said exercise to be performed by the Union Government.

25.   Insofar as performance/special audit is concerned, we do not feel  the necessity of any such special audit inasmuch as the machinery  available  is adequate to ensure due online casino's performance as  well  as  accountability  and  proper utilization of public money.

26.   If Government advertisements adhere  to  the  objects  and  parameters mentioned above we do not feel the necessity of imposing a special  curb  on government advertisements on the eve of the elections, as suggested  by  the Committee.

27.   In an earlier part of the present order we had indicated the power  of the purse that Government advertisements invariably  involve.   Needless  to say the concepts of fairness and even dispensation to  all  media/ publishing houses will have to be maintained by the Government be it at the  Centre  or the States.

28.   We close the matters on the aforesaid note by approving  and  adopting the recommendations of the  Committee  except  what  has  been  specifically indicated above with regard to (1)    publication  of  photographs  of  the  Government  functionaries  and political leaders alongwith the advertisement(s). (2)   appointment of an Ombudsman (3)   the recommendation with regard to performance audit by each  Ministry. (4)   embargo on advertisements on the eve of the elections.

29.  We also make it clear that the present directions issued under  Article 142 of the Constitution  cannot  be  comprehensive  and  there  are  several aspects of the matter which may have escaped our attention  at  this  stage. In this regard, we would like to clarify that it is  not  the  intention  of the  Court  to  attempt  to  lay  down  infallible  and  all   comprehensive directions to cover the issue at hand.  The gaps, if any, we  are  confident would be filled up by the executive arm of the  government  itself  inasmuch as the attainment of constitutional goals and values enshrined  in  Part  IV of the Constitution is the conjoint responsibility of the  three  organs  of the  State  i.e.  legislative,  executive  and  the  judiciary,  as  earlier discussed.

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vcrd lÙkk/kkjh ny ds usrkx.k viuh best pedkus vkSj vius ny ds fy, oksV cVksjus ds fy, ljdkjh [ktkus dk bLrseky djrs Fks ftldk Qk;nk foKkiu ,tsfUl;ksa vkSj ehfM;k dks lh/ks rkSj ij gksrk Fkk ftlij jksd rks ugha ysfdu vadq'k vo'; yx x;k gSA bl QSlys ls ljdkj dh uhfr;ks] dk;ZØeksa] tu dY;k.kdkjh ;kstukvksa ds foKkiu izdk'ku ij jksd ugha gS ysfdu pwafd lÙkk/kkjh ny@usrk dh ea'kk dHkh lkQ ugha Fkh blfy, QksVks gVus ls budh la[;k Lor% de gks x;h gSA

;gka ,d rF; mYys[kuh; gS fd bl vPNs [kkls fu.kZ; dks Lo;a dksVZ us eq[; U;k;k/kh'k dh QksVks dk ftØ djds fooknkLin cuk fn;k D;ksafd eq[; U;k;k/kh'k ds QksVks okys foKkiu ;nk dnk gh Nis gksaxsA cgjgky mlds ihNs D;k ea'kk Fkh ;g Li"V ugha gSA nwljh ckr ;g fd iz/kkuea=h dh QksVks Nkius dh btktr nsdj rFkk eq[;ea=h dh QksVks ij jksd yxk dj Hkh la?kh; < kaps ds eqn~ns ij cgl dk jkLrk [kksy fn;kA bl ckr ij fu.kZ; [kkeks'k gS fd jk"Vªifr] iz/kkuea=h vkSj eq[; U;k;k/kh'k dh QksVks mudh lgefr ls gh lgh D;ksa Nkih tk ldrh gS\ bl fu.kZ; dk lcls vf/kd ykHk iz/kkuea=h dks gh feysxk D;ksafd jk"Vªifr dk QksVks rks dHkh&dHkkj Nirk Hkh Fkk eq[; U;k;k/kh'k dk rks yxHkx u ds cjkcjA 'kk;n ;gh dkj.k gS fd dqN usrk Hkktik ds gh nch tqcku ls dg jgs gSa fd ;g ^,dks·ge f}rh;ks ukfLr* dh uhfr dh gh ifjf.kfr gS eryc lkQ gS flQZ eSa nwljk ughaA

dqy feykdj ;g ,d vR;Ur vko';d jk"Vªfgr@tufgr dk fu.kZ; gS ftldh ftruh iz'kalk dh tk; de gS vkSj ;kfpdk nkf[ky djus okyh laLFkkvksa ^dkeu dkt* o ^lsaVj Qkj ifCyd baVjsLV fyfVxs'ku* dks dksf'k'k% lk/kqokn fd tufgr ls tqM s ,sls eqn~ns mBk,A

Last Updated on Friday, 24 July 2015 16:09

अधिवक्ता हड़ताल किसके लिए?


fdlh pht dks bruk ugha [khapuk pkfg, fd og VwV tk;A vf/koDrk@ okndkjh fgr ds uke ij vf/koDrk vfgr rFkk eqvkfDdy fpr gksus yxs rks gM rky dh iM rky vko';d gks tkrh gSA
vkt ns'k dk 'kk;n gh dksbZ jkT; cpk gks tgka vf/koDrk fdlh u fdlh ckr dks ysdj vkUnksyujr u gksaA vf/koDrk Hkh vkt f'k{kkfe=] vkaxuckM h ;k vU; deZpkfj;ksa dh tekr esa [kM k fn[kkbZ ns jgk gSA
lcls vge iz'u gS fd vkf[kj bu gM rkyksa dk edln D;k gS\ blesa fdldk Qk;nk gS\ bu lc dh xgu iM rky ds ckn tks rF; lkeus vk;s gSa oks bl ckr dks lkspus ij foo'k djus okys gSa fd vkf[kj U;k;ikfydk xBu fdlds fy, gqvk gS\ ttst ds fy,] U;kf;d vf/kdkfj;ksa ds fy,] U;k;ky; ds deZpkfj;ksa ds fy,] vf/koDrkvksa ds fy, ;k okndkfj;ksa ds fy,A
vkt bl iwjh O;oLFkk esa okndkjh dgk¡ [kM k gS\ fuf'pr :i ls lcls fupyh ^ik;nku ij*A vf/koDrk laxBuksa ds usrkvksa dh egÙokdka{kkvksa us U;k;ky; dks usrky; esa rCnhy dj fn;k gSA bl gM rky ls vxj dksbZ lcls vf/kd dqizHkkfor gks jgk gS rks og gS igys uEcj ij eqvfDdy o nwljs uEcj ij dfu"B vf/koDrk tks izfrfnu dke djds lkS] nks lkS #i;s dekdj viuk thou ;kiu djrs gSaA
;g dSlh gM rky gS] D;k blesa dke ugh gks jgk gS\ D;k gM rky ds uke ij nks xquk iSlk ysdj ofj"B vf/koDrkx.k pSEcj esa vkMZj ugha djok jgs gSa\ bl O;oLFkk ¼vO;oLFkk½ esa lcls vf/kd twfu;j odhyksa dk uqdlku gks jgk gS ijUrq foMEcuk ;g gS fd os Lo;a ;k rks le> ugha jgs gSa ;k mobile casino le>uk ugha pkgrs gSaA
vkf[kj bl gM rky ls gkfly D;k gks jgk gS\ vxj ;g ljdkj@ iz'kklu ij ncko cuk ds viuh ekaxs euokus ds fy, gS rks ;g dgus esa dksbZ f>>d ugha gS fd bl edln esa iwjh rjQ vlQy gSA bldh fLFkfr fcYdqy oSlh gh gS tSls fd ^nqfo/kk esa nksuks x;s ek;k feyh u jke*A vc vke turk dh utj esa gekjh fLFkfr fcYdqy mUgha ljdkjksa dh rjg gks jgh gSa tks flQZ vius ckjs esa lksprh gSa turk ds ckjs esa ugha vkSj ftl laxBu ds ikl turk dh lgkuqHkwfr ugha gksrh og dHkh lQy ugha gksrkA
vkt vko';drk gM rky djds tufo'okl [kksus dh ugha gS cfYd flLVe ds Hkz"Vkpkjksa] vR;kpkjksa dks mtkxj djds budks /kwy pVkus dh gS ftldk lcls mfpr jkLrk U;k;ikfydk ds xfy;kjs ls gksdj tkrk gSA vkxs leL;k vkSj fodV gks ldrh gS D;ksa fd bruh yEch gM rky ds ckn ;fn fcuk ek¡xs euok, gM rky lekIr gks tkrh gS rks bl nkSjku tks dk;Z ugha gksrs mlds fy, fdls ftEesnkj ekuk tk;sxk\
vke vf/koDrk dks bl ij fopkj djuk gksxkA

Last Updated on Thursday, 21 May 2015 08:00

मुख्य न्यायाधीशों की प्रशासनिक अकर्मण्यता वादकारी त्रस्त


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Considering present strength of 64 Judges against sanctioned strength of 160 the matter of appointment of Judges in the Hon'ble High Court has become a subject of serious concern for the members of Oudh Bar Association. The Executive committee of Oudh Bar Association deliberated on this issue in its meeting. In the interest of our judicial system it is felt imperative to make a demand for appointment of good number of Judges in the High Court against existing vacancies.

The Executive Committee resolves that a request be made to Hon'ble Chief Justice and Senior Judge that their Lordships may proceed to take all needful measures for filling up the existing vacancies at the earliest.

The Executive Committee unanimously authorised Dr. R.S. Pande, the President of Oudh Bar Association to meet Hon'ble Chief Justice and Senior Judge and communicate the resolution of Oudh Bar Association.

Ramesh Pandy
General Secretary

;g la;ksx dh dgk tk;sxk fd bl le; Hkh egklfpo jes'k ik.Ms; gh gSaA
mPp U;k;ky; esa ttst dh fu;qfDr;ka u gksus dk ,d izeq[k dkj.k vf/koDrkvksa ds ukeksa ij lgefr u cu ikuk gS D;ksafd lgefr ;ksX;rk ij ugha gksuh gS cfYd [kseksa dh yk;WYVh ij gSA ;g ckr le> ls ijs gS fd vkil dh vlgefr dk [kkfe;ktk okndkjh D;ksa Hkqxr jgk gS\ ns'k ds iwoZ eq[; U;k;k/kh'k U;k;ewfrZ vkj-,e- yks< k us dgk Fkk U;k; vko';d lsok gS rks mlls turk dks oafpr D;ksa fd;k tk jgk gSA

Hkkjr ,d d`f"k iz/kku ns'k gS mlesa Hkh mÙkj izns'k dh 85 izfr'kr turk d`f"k ij fuHkZj gSA U;k;ky; esa fdlkuks ds jktLo@nhokuh ds cgqr lkjs eqdnesa yEcs le; ls isfUMx gS ysfdu 1992 ¼U;k;ewfrZ ch-ds- flag½ ds ckn ls vc rd 22 o"kksZa esa y[kuÅ [k.MihB ls jktLo@nhokuh dh QhYM ls ,d Hkh odhy tt ugha cukA ftlds dkj.k xjhcksa@fdlkuksa dks Rofjr U;k; nsus dh nyhysa [kks[kyh lkfcr gks jgh gSaA

v/khuLFk U;k;ky;ksa dh fLFkfr Hkh deksos'k ,slh gh gS QdZ flZQ bruk gS fd ogk¡ fu;qfDr ljdkj dks djuh gSA vkt ljdkjksa dks vke vkneh ls dksbZ eryc ugha gS rks okndkjh rks flQZ ,d fgLlk gS mldkA
mPp U;k;ky; esa deZpkfj;ksa ds lSdM ksa in Lohd`r gSa ysfdu mnklhurk ds pyrs vktrd ugha Hkjs tk lds gSa ftlds dkj.k U;k; ckf/kr gks jgk gSA

oDr vk x;k gS fd bu fu;qfDr;ksa ds fy, ftEesnkj yksx ?kkfM ;kyh vk¡lw cgkuk cUn djds Bksl dk;Z ;kstuk cukdj lcls igys fu;qfDr;k¡ djsaA

okndkfj;ksa dks U;k; fnykus ds fy, ;g vko';d gS fd U;k;ra= dks mldh leLr vk/kkjHkwr vko';drkvkas] ttst o vf/kdkfj;ksa] deZpkfj;ksa dh fu;qfDr] dksVZ :e] fjdkMZ :e odhyksa ds cSBus dh O;oLFkk] okndkfj;ksa ds fy, dksVZ ifjlj esa ewyHkwr ¼ikuh] cSBus] ew=ky;½ lqof/kkvksa dh LFkkiuk djds U;k; dh /kqjh dks etcwr fd;k tk;A tu lkekU; ds ewy vf/kdkjksa dh j{kk gsrq U;k;ikfydk dk l'kDr gksuk vR;Ur vko';d gSA

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न्याय तंत्र की गरिमा बनाम स्वीटेबुल एडजस्टमेण्ट


{kfjr gks jgs yksdrkaf=d ewY;ksa dks cpkus ,oa mlesa tu fo'okl dh cgkyh ds fy, fu"i{k etcwr ,oa Lora= U;k;ra= dk gksuk gh vko';d ugha gS cfYd U;k;ra= esa vke vkneh dk fo'okl cuk;s j[kus ds fy, bldh csnkx Nfo Hkh gksuh pkfg,A

mPp U;k;ikfydk ds ttst dh lsokfuo`fÙk ds ckn fdlh Hkh in ij ljdkj dh fu;qfDr lnSo gh fooknksa ds /ksjs esa jgrh gSA izk;% ;g ns[kk Hkh x;k gS fd ,slh fu;qfDr;ka ;k rks vglku pqdkus dh fu;fr ls dh tkrh gS ;k fdlh fo'ks"k dk;Z dks buls laikfnr djkus ds fy,A ;g loZ fofnr gS fd iksLV fjVk;jy ,lkbues.V ¼LohVscqy ,MtLVes.V½ ;ksX;rk] {kerk@bekunkjh ds vk/kkj ij de LokfeHkfDr ds vk/kkj ij vf/kd gksrk gSA bu LohVscqy ,MtLes.V ls U;k;ikfydk dh Lora=rk o fu"i{krk nksuks ij maxfy;k mBus yxh gSaA

vkt ds Living Legal Legend U;k;ewfrZ V.R. Krishna Iyer us iksLV fjVk;jes.V ij fy[kk gS& "Judicial afternoons and evenings are sensitive phases, the incumbent being bothered about post-retiral prospects. The Executive plays upon this weakness to bend the integrity or buy the partiality of the elderly brethren."

orZeku dsUnzh; foÙk ea=h ,oa iwoZ dkuwu ea=h }kjk iwoZ esa dh x;h ,d Hkh egRoiw.kZ gS ftlesa mUgksaus ttst ds ckjs esa dgk& "those who know the law and those who know the Law Minister." ;|fi fd mudh ;g orZeku ljdkj cuus ds igys dh gS vc Hkh muds ;gh fopkj gSa ;k mlesa cnyko vk;k ;g Kkr ugha gSA

bl nqfu;k esa dqN Hkh fu%LokFkZ ugha gksrk ljdkj dh dk;Ziz.kkyh rks fcYdqy ughaA vusd ,sls mnkgj.k ekStwn gSa fd ,sls yksx tks Hkz"Vkpkj dh izfrewfrZ Fks ;gka rd dh gR;k fu;qfDr dks tekur nsus esa nks&nks djksM dh ?kwl [kk x;s] ftldh tekur fujLr djrs gq, mPpre U;k;ky; us fLVªDpj ;g dg dj ikl fd;k fd ;g csy ds xzkm.M fn, x;s ;k Vªk;y fd;k x;k] mudks Hkz"Vkpkj dh tkap djus okyh laLFkk dk u flQZ izeq[k cuk;k x;k cfYd mudk dk;Zdky Hkh ljdkj us lkjh eku e;kZnk rkd ij j[kdj fuyZTtrk iwoZd c< k;k rFkk mPpre U;k;ky; ds funsZ'k ds ckotwn c< k gqvk dk;Zdky lekIr gksus ds ckn Hkh vHkh in ij cuk;s gq, gSa D;ksafd oks Hkh lkjh xfjek dks rkd ij j[kdj vius vkdk ds fojksf/k;ksa dks tsy fHktokdj ;k tsy Hkstus dh O;oLFkk djds ued dk gd vnk dj jgk gSA Hkz"Vkpkj jksdus ds fy, cuh bl laLFkk esa O;kIr Hkz"Vkpkj dk vkye ;g gS fd mlds izeq[k lfgr ckcw rd vjc ifr gks x;sA

bykgkckn mPp U;k;ky; ds ,d iwoZ dk;Zokgd eq[; U;k;k/kh'k us tks jkgr ;nqoa'k dks vius lsokdky esa nh Fkh mldk ykHk vktrd mudks fey jgk gS tc Hkh ;nqjkt vkrk gS mudks dksbZ Need to Opiates use this 5 day perm is the best. u dksbZ ,lkbues.V fey gh tkrk gSA

xr 12 o"kksZa esa mPpre U;k;ky; ls lsokfuo`Ùk gq, ttst esa ls yxHkx 75% dk iksLV fjVk;j LohVscqy ,MtLVes.V gqvk gSA ns'k ds iwoZ eq[; U;k;k/kh'k ih- lnkf'koe dh dsjy ds jkT;iky in ij fu;qfDr us ,d ckj fQj ,slh fu;qfDr;ksa ,oa U;k;ra= dh xfjek ij cgl NsM nh gSA Lo;a lnkf'koe dks ;g lQkbZ nsuh iM h fd ;g in mUgsa ujsUnz eksnh o vfer 'kkg dks U;k;ky; }kjk feyh jkgr ds izfrnku Lo:i ugha feykA mudh bl ckr esa lPpkbZ Hkh gS D;ksa fd bu nksuks dks tc jkgr feyh Fkh rc ujsUnz eksnh ds iz/kkuea=h cuus vkSj vfer 'kkg ds brus ikojQqy gksus dk dksbZ dkj.k ekStwn ugha FkkA ysfdu in dh xfjek ij rks vkap vk gh online casino jgh gSA

v/khuLFk U;k;ky; ij vadq'k ds fy, mPp U;k;ky; gS] mPp U;;ky; ds fo#) vihy ds fy, mPpre online casino U;k;ky; gS ysfdu mPpre U;k;ky; ds Åij ns'k dk dksbZ U;kf;d Qksje ugha gSA blfy, U;k;ikfydk ds lEeku] Lora=rk o xfjek dks v{kq.k j[kus dh lcls cM h ftEesnkjh mlh dh gSA ;g foMEcuk gh gS fd tgka mPpre U;k;ky; ls brj vusd laoS/kkfud laLFkk, gSa ftuesa ;g O;oLFkk gS fd mlds loksZPp in ls gVus ds ckn og O;fDr fdlh Hkh vU; laLFkk esa dksbZ Hkh in xzg.k ugha djsxkA ysfdu nqHkkZX; ls mPp U;k;ky; o mPpre U;k;ky; ds U;k;ewfrZ;ksa ds lEcU/k esa ,slh dksbZ O;oLFkk ugha gSA
Hkkjrh; lafo/kku esa 'kfDr;ksa ¼fo/kkf;dk] dk;Zikfydk o U;k;ikfydk½ dk foHkktu rks gS ysfdu xksy&eksy ftldh O;k[;k t:jr ds vuqlkj dh tkrh gSA

dk;Zikfydk tks nknkxhjh igys flQZ fo/kkf;dk ij fn[kkrh Fkh] ogha vc U;k;ikfydk ij Hkh >kM us dh dksf'k'k dj jgh gSA oSls U;k;ikfydk dk dk;Zikfydk o fo/kkf;dk ls Vdjko dksbZ u;k ugha gS ysfdu ftruk vc gS mruk igys dHkh ugha FkkA

dk;Zikfydk] U;k;ikfydk dks Hkz"V cukus dk gj lEHko iz;kl djrh gS mlh dk ,d rjhdk iksLV fjVk;jy ,lkbes.V Hkh gS tks vke ukxfjd ds eu esa fu"i{krk ds izfr lansg iSnk djrk gS tks yksdra= ds fy, 'kqHk ladsr ugha gSaA ,slk ugha gS fd ftudks lsok fuo`fÙk ds ckn in feyk os Hkz"V gh gksaxs ysfdu ,d pkoy ds vk/kkj ij iwjh gkaMh dh uoS;r vkdus dh dgkor pkfjrkFkZ gksrh gSA oSls Hkh mPpre U;k;ky;@mPp U;k;ky; ls lsokfuo`Ùk gksdj mlds uhps dh laLFkk esa dke djuk] ?kksM s ls mrkjdj x/ks ij cSBus tSlk gSA
vc ,d iz'u ;g mBrk gS fd tks U;kf;d] v/kZ U;kf;d laLFkk,a gS ftuesa orZeku@lsokfuo`Ùk ttst dh fu;qfDr dh tkrh gS] tgka fof/kd Kku dh vko';drk gS ogka fdldh fu;qfDr djs ljdkjA leL;k dk gy gS fd ,sls vf/koDrk tks mPp U;k;ky; o mPpre U;k;ky; ds tt fu;qDr gksus dh ;ksX;rk j[krs gSa mUgsa bu inksa ij fu;qDr fd;k tk;A

U;k;ra= esa viuk O;olk;@o`fÙk pquus okys dks vlk/kkj.k fu"i{krk o LoPN vkpj.k dk izn'kZu djuk pkfg,A oSls rks mPp U;k;ikfydk ds lsokfuo`Ùk ttst dks bruh isU'ku o iksLV fjVk;jy lqfo/kk,a gSa fd os lEekutud thou ;kiu dj ldrs gSa ysfdu blds ckotwn vxj vko';d gks rks mudks vkthou iwjk osru o lq[k lqfo/kk,a lfoZax tt okyh ns nh tk; ysfdu nwljk ,lkbues.V u fn;k tk;A

bl lEcU/k esa gky gh esa lsok fuo`Ùk gq, eq[; U;k;k/kh'k U;k;ewfrZ vkj-,e- yks< k ds os fopkj o dFku ljkguh; gS ftlesa mUgksaus dgk fd fjVk;jes.V ds ckn de ls de nks lky rd dksbZ Hkh in Lohdkj ugha djuk pkfg,A gkykafd esjs fopkj ls ;g de ls de ikap o"kZ gksuk pkfg, D;ksafd veweu ljdkjksa dk dk;Zdky l= ikap o"kZ dk gksrk gSA

Kkr gks fd ,d lekjksg esa tc dkuwu ea=h us mudh lsokfuo`fÙk ds ek= pUn fnuksa igys ;g dgk fd mudks nwljh bafux ds fy, rS;kj jguk gS ¼mudk vk'k; lh0ch0lh0 o yksdiky laLFkk ls Fkk½ rks bl ij tc U;k;ewfrZ yks< k ds cksyus dk uEcj vk;k rks mUgksaus fouezrkiwoZd djkjk tcko nsrs gq, dgk vktdy V~osaVh&V~osaVh dk tekuk gS ftlesa lsd.M bafuax ugha gksrhA

mPp U;k;ikfydk ds lsokfuo`Ùk U;k;ewfrZ;ksa dh ;ksX;rk] fof/kd Kku dk mi;ksx U;k;ra= dks lqn`< o l{ke cukus esa fd;k tkuk pkfg,A dksbZ nwljk ,lkbuesaV nsus ls rks vPNk gS yfEcr eqdnekvksa dh la[;k dks ns[krs gq, tc rd Qqy LVsªUFk rd fu;qfDr;ka u gks tk;a budks fjVk;j gh u fd;k tk;A igys fu;qfDr;ka djsa fQj fjVk;j djsaA

Last Updated on Saturday, 22 August 2015 21:00

पारदर्शिता का सवाल


ttst dh fu;qfDr% O;oLFkk dksbZ Hkh gks ikjnf'kZrk ds vHkko esa fLFkfr esa dksbZ cnyko lEHko ugha


mPp U;k; ikfydk esa ttst dh tks Hkh fu;qfDr O;oLFkk Fkh ;k gS mlesa dfe;ksa ds ckotwn ,d ls c< dj ,d izfrHkkoku ttst dh fu;qfDr;ka gqbZ ftuds fu.kZ; dk yksgk iwjk fo'o ekurk gS fQj Hkh tc maxyh mB tk; rks lek/kku vko';d gSA

lhrk th dks tc jke pUnz th yadk fot; ds ckn okil yk;s rks ;g tkurs gq, Hkh dh os igys dh rjg ifo= gSa mudh vfXu ijh{kk yh mlds ckotwn tc mudh iztk ds ,d /kksch us maxyh mBk nh rks mUgksaus lhrk dk ifjR;kx flQZ blfy, dj fn;k fd iztk esa jktk ds izfr dksbZ lansg ugha gksuk pkfg,A

cgqr lkjh dfe;ksa&[kkfe;ksa ds ckotwn Hkkjrh; U;k;ikfydk esa ,sls ttst gq, vkSj vkt Hkh gSa ftuds ;ksX;rk] fu.kZ; {kerk o bZekunkjh ls vkt Hkh yksxksa dk fo'okl ml ij cuk gqvk gS rFkk tks vius dk;Z dks dq'kyrkiwoZd djrs gq, bl laLFkk dh xfjek dks cpkus ds iz;kl esa yxs gSaA ,sls bZekunkj tt iwjs ns'k dks ;g lans'k nsus esa l{ke gSa vkSj fn, Hkh gSa fd U;k; ls Åij dksbZ ughaA25-2.jpg

mPp U;k;ky; ds lsokfuo`Ùk tt dh vUr'psruk fjVk;jes.V ds rhu o"kZ ckn vkSj tc ;wih, ljdkj dh d`ik Lo:i izkIr Hkkjrh; izsl ifj"kn dk v/;{k in vfUre pj.k esa gS] tkx`r gksdj mPp U;k;ky; o mPpre U;k;ky; esa ttst dh fu;qfDr izfØ;k esa Hkz"Vkpkj dk tks [kqyklk fd;k gS mlls bl laLFkk ij ftrus xEHkhj iz'u [kM s gq, gS mlls vf/kd xaHkhj iz'u dkVtw dh nl lky dh pqIih ij [kM s gks jgs gSaA

ikjnf'kZrk bZekunkjh dk igyk lksiku gS tcfd xksiuh;rk Hkz"Vkpkj dh tuuh o Discretion mldk ikyu iks"k.k drkZ gSA25-3.jpg

Lokra=;ksÙkj Hkkjr esa turk dks nks vf/kdkj] ,d U;k;ikfydk }kjk ,d fo/kkf;dk }kjk ,sls feys ftlls mldk vkSj ns'k dk cgqr dqN Hkyk gks ldrk Fkk ysfdu vQlksl ,d dk lgh mi;ksx ugha gks ik jgk gS tcfd nwljs dk mi;ksx ftEesnkj inksa ij cSBs yksx ckf/kr dj jgs gSaA ;s vf/kdkj gSa tufgr ;kfpdk o lwpuk dk vf/kdkjA ;s nksuksa ,d nwljs ds iwjd gSa rFkk nksuksa dk mn~ns'; turk dks vU;k; ls cpkuk rFkk ftEesnkj yksxksa ds dke&dkt esa ikjnf'kZrk lqfuf'pr djuk gSA

yksdra= ds LrEHk fo/kkf;dk] dk;Zikfydk o U;k;ikfydk ,slk izrhr gksrk gS fd bl ikjnf'kZrk ds iwjh rjg ls f[kykQ gS D;ksafd ;fn ,slk u gksrk rks eq[; U;k;k/kh'k ls ysdj iz/kkuea=h rd lc vius dks lwpuk vf/kdkj dkuwu ls ckgj j[kus dh ckr u djrsA vHkh dqN le; iwoZ mPpre U;k;ky; o mPp U;k;ky; ;gk¡ rd dh eq[; U;k;k/kh'k dh fu;qfDr esa ikjnf'kZrk ,oa tokcnsgh lqfuf'pr djus ds fy, lwpuk ds vf/kdkj ds rgr tkudkfj;k¡ ekaxh tkus yxha tks U;k;ikfydk dks cgqr ukxokj xqtjha tcfd U;k;ikfydk esa tulkekU; dk fo'okl iquZLFkkfir djus ds fy, ;g u flQZ U;k;laxr gS cfYd t:jh Hkh gSA

25-4.jpgmPp U;k;ky; o mPpre U;k;ky; esa ttst dh fu;qfDr] LFkkukUrj.k o mldh izfØ;k 'kq: ls gh fooknksa o cgl dk eqn~nk jgha gSA igys dsUnz ljdkj dh flQkfj'k ij fu;qfDr;k¡ gksrh Fkha ckn esa mPpre U;k;ky; ,d tqfMfl;y vkMZj djds viuh dksysft;e ds ek/;e ls fu;qfDr;k¡ djus yxk ysfdu fookn o cgl dks fojke ugha yxkA ftlds ihNs egRoiw.kZ dkj.k Hkh gSA tc dsUnz dh flQkfj'k ij fu;qfDr;k¡ gksrh Fkha rc Hkh tt cuus dh ;ksX;rk ekius dk dksbZ ekin.M ugha Fkk] ikVhZ ds vuq'kkflr odhy dk;ZdÙkkZ dks tt cuk fn;k tkrk Fkk vc tc mPp U;k;ky; dh dksysft;e dh fu;qfDr dh flQkfj'k ij mPpre U;k;ky; dh dksysft;e fu;qfDr dh flQkfj'k djrh gS rks Hkh ;ksX;rk ekius dk dksbZ fu/kkZfjr ekin.M ugha gSA ;g ek= dqN lhfu;j ttksa dk Discretion gS ftldks ekudj mPpre U;k;ky; ds dksysft;e ds lnL; vius Discretion ds vk/kkj ij fu.kZ; djrs gSa ftldk urhtk gS fd dqN fu;qfDr;ksa ls U;k;ikfydk dh xfjek dks vk?kkr yxk gSA ,slk dbZ ckj gks pqdk gS fd mPpre U;k;ky; dh dksysfTk;e mPp U;k;ky; ds dksfyft;e }kjk vxzlkfjr ukeksa dks vLohdkj dj nsrk gSA D;k bl ns'k dh turk dks ;g tkuus dk vf/kdkj ugha gS fd fdl vk/kkj ij ttksa dh fu;qfDr gsrq uke Hksts x;s vkSj fdu dkj.kksa ls mudks fujLr dj fn;k x;k\
vkt yk[k Vds dk loky gS fd brus egRoiw.kZ in ij fu;qfDr ds fy, D;k dksbZ Criteria ¼ekin.M½ gS\ ttksa dh fu;qfDr ds fy, lafo/kku ds vuqPNsn 217 ¼1½ o ¼2½ esa LFkk;h rFkk vuqPNsn 224 esa ,fM'kuy@,fDVax ttst dh fu;qfDr dk izko/kku fd;k x;k gSA H.M. Seervai ds Constitutional law of India ds pkSFks laLdj.k esa ml ij fy[kk gS&
"...That procedure was desined to test the fitness of a person to be appointed a High Court Judge; his character, his integrity and his campetence in various branches of the law, and the like. In recruiting a person from the Bar, his experience in defferent kinds of litigation would also be taken in to account"

ttksa dh fu;qfDr esa ,d fuf'pr Criteria dk u gksuk bldh xfjek o U;k; dh xq.koÙkk nksuks dks izHkkfor dj jgk gSA tc 10'x10'/4 ds pSEcj ds ,YkkVes.V ds fy, Criteria fu/kkZfjr djuk vko';d gS tSlk fd ekuuh; U;k;ewfrZ nsoh izlkn flag o vYyk jge dh ihB us fot; 'kadj f=ikBh ,oa vU; cuke ekuuh; mPp U;k;ky; bykgkckn ,oa vU; esa tks [2007(25) LCD 1266] esa fjiksVZM gS ,ykVeasV fyLV dks Quash djrs gq, fy[kk gS&
"Opposite parties may proceed afresh to allot the chambers ofter formulating the criteria...." rc ttksa dh fu;qfDr esa dksbZ Criteria D;ksa ugha\
bruk gh ugha ofj"B vf/koDrk ukfer djus ds fy, Full court dh jk; t:jh gS rks tt dh fu;qfDr esa flQZ rhu dh gh jk; D;ksa\ ikjnf'kZrk ds vHkko o Discretion dk Qk;nk mBkrs gq, ttksa dh fu;qfDr esa ^va/kk ckaVs jsoM h viqfg vkiqfg ys;* dh dgkor pfjrkFkZ gks jgh gSA Discretion dk lhfer mi;ksx djus ij Supreme Court Advocate-on-Record Association & others V/s Union of India Reported in 1993(4) SCC 441 specking for the majority Hon'ble J.S. Verma J held".... the reduction of the area of discretion to the minimum, the element of plurality of Juges in formation of the opinion of the Chief Justice of India effective consultation in writing and  prevailing norms to regulate the area of discretion are Sufficient cheeks" ysfdu okLro esa gks blds myVk jgk gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd bruh deh ds ckotwn ukeksa ij lgefr ugha cu ik jgh gSA

ttksa dh fu;qfDr dks ysdj tks iz'u lkeus vk jgs gSa os u flQZ vuqÙkfjr gSa cfYd iwjh&iwjh U;k;ikfydk dks dV?kjs esa [kM k djus okys gSa vkSj flQZ ttksa dh gh fu;qfDr ugha bykgkckn mPp U;k;ky; esa fiNys yxHkx 30 o"kksZa esa prqFkZ dh fu;qfDr ds fy, Hkh ,d Hkh foKkiu ugha fudyk r`rh; esa lSdM ksa fu;qfDr;k¡ euekus <ax ls dh x;h vkf[kj D;ksa\ D;k ;g Hkz"Vkpkj dk [ksy ugha gS\

yxHkx jkst gh ikjnf'kZrk dh /kqu ctkus okys U;k;ky; dkuwu ls Åij gS\ vkf[kj25-5.jpg ikjnf'kZrk ls bruh ?kcM kgV D;ksa\ ttksa dh fu;qfDr ds ckjs esa lwpuk lkoZtfud djus ds fy, Central Information Commission us tks funsZ'k tkjh fd;k Fkk mls mPpre U;k;ky; us viuh gh dksVZ esa pqukSrh ns nhA eq[; U;k;k/kh'k dks Right to Information Act  ds ambit esa gksus ds fnYyh mPp U;k;ky; ds] fu.kZ; ij rRdkyhu eq[; U;k;k/kh'k ds-th- ckykd`".kuu~ us ;g vkifÙk mBk;h fd ttksa dh fu;qfDr;ksa ls lacaf/kr tkudkfj;k¡ losan'khy gS ftUgsa lkoZtkfud ugha fd;k tk ldrkA ;g ckr le> ls ijs gS fd fdlh Hkh fu;qfDr esa mlls lEcaf/kr tkudkjh fdl fygkt ls laosnu'khy gS flok; Hkz"Vkpkj dsA blls myV tc p;u izfØ;k ikjn'khZ o ekin.M vk/kkfjr gksrh gS rks ,slh fu;qfDr;ksa esa tu fo'okl dk Hkh lekos'k gksrk gSA fu;qfDr lEca/kh lwpuk lkoZtkfud u djuk mlesa Hkz"Vkpkj dh v'kadk dks tUe nsrk gSA

Kkr gks fd tc ttksa dh fu;qfDr dsUnz ljdkj }kjk dh tkrh Fkh rks 1981 esa Lo;a mPpre U;k;ky; us gh fu;qfDr ls lacaf/kr lwpukvksa dks lkoZtfud djus dk funsZ'k nsrs gq, S.P. Gupta V/s Union of India Reported in (AIR 1982 SC 149 esa observe fd;k& "....Sometimes it is difficult to recruit competent judges and no useful purpose is served by appointing mediocre judges who ultimately would not be able to make any impact so far as the arrears of pending cases are concerned and who would dilute the quality of justice administered in the High Court."

"....Now it is obvious from the Constitution that we have adopted a democratic form of Government. Where a society has chosen to accept democracy as its creedal faith, it is elementary that the citizens ought to know what their government is doing. The citizens have a right to decide by whom and by what rules they shall be governed and they are entitled to call on those who govern on their behalf to account for their conduct. No democratic government can survive without accountability and the basic postulate of accountability is that the people should have information about the functioning of the government. It is only if people know how government is functioning that they can fulfill the role which democracy assigns to them and make democracy a really effective participatory democracy. "Knowledge" said James Madison, "will for ever govern ignorance and a people who mean to be their own governors must arm themselves with the power knowledge gives. A popular government without popular information or the means of obtaining it. is but a prologue to a farce or tragedy or perhaps both." The citizens' right, to know the facts, the true facts, about, the administration of the country is thus one of the pillars of a democratic State. And that is why the demand for openness in the government is increasingly growing in defferent parts of the world."

requires, or which turns information services into propaganda agencies, will lose the trust of the people. It will be countered by ill-informed and destructive criticism. Its critics will try to break down all barriers erected to preserve secrecy and they will disclose all that they can by whatever means, discover. As a result matters will be revealed when they ought to remain secret in the interests of the nation."

"....    We have no doubt that high level constitutional functionaries like the Chief Justice of a High Court and the Chief Justice of India would not be deterred from performing their constitutional duty of expressing their views boldly and fearlessly even if they were told that the correspon- dence containing their views might subsequently be disclosed, If, to quote the words of Lord Pearce in Conway v. rimmer 1968 AC 910 (supra) "there are countless teachers at schools and universities, countless employers of labour, who write candid reports, unworried by the outside chance of disclosure" here is no reason to suspect that high level constitutional functionaries like the Chief Justice of a High Court and the Chief Justice of India would flinch and falter in expressing their frank and sincere views when performing their constitutional duty. We have already dealt with the argument based on the need for candour and frankness and we must reject it in its application to the case of holders of high constitutional offices like the Chief Justice of a High Court and the Chief Justice of India. Be it noted -- and of this we have no doubt -- that our Chief Justices and Judges are made of sterner stuff; they have inherited a long and ancient tradition of independence and impartiality they are by training and experience as also by their oath of office dedicated to the cause of justice administered without fear or favour, affection or ill-will and in fact there is no power on earth which can deflect them from the path of rectitude. We find it difficult to believe that they would not act as Judges but as weak kneed and ef-fete individuals afraid to express their views lest they might come to be known to others and provoke criticism.

"....    The demand for openness in the government is based principally on two reasons. It is now widely accepted that democracy, does not consist merely in people exercising their franchise once in five years to choose their rules and, once the vote is cast, then retiring in passivity and not taking any interest in the government. Today it is common ground that democracy has a moralities content and its orchestration has to be continuous and pervasive. This means inter alia that people should not only cast intelligent and rational votes but should also emeralds sound judgment on the conduct of the government and the merits of public policies; so that democracy does not remain merely a sporadic exercise in voting but becomes a continuous process of government--an attitude and habit of mind. But this important role people can fulfill in a democracy only if it is an open government where there is full access to information in regard to the functioning of the government."25-6.jpg

"....    A democratic government, however, though it must compete with these other types of organisation, has a task which is complicated by its obligations to the people. It needs the trust of the governed. It. cannot, use the plea of secrecy to hide from the people its basic aims. On the contrary it must explain these aims: It must provide the justification for them and give the facts both for and against a selected course of action. Now must such information be provided only at one level and through one means of communication? A government which pursues secret aims, or which operates in greater secrecy than the effective conduct of its proper functionsConfidentiality is not a head of privilege and the need for confidentiality of high level communications without more cannot sustain a claim for immunity against disclosure. Vide Science Research Council v. Nassa (1979) 3 All ER 673 and particularly the observations of Lord Scarman at pp. 697 and 698. Even if a document be confidential, it must be produced, notwithstanding its confide- ntiality, if it is necessary for fairly disposing of the case, unless it can be shown that its disclosure would otherwise be injurious to public interest. " 25-7.jpg

"....    There might be difference of views between the Chief Justice of the High Court and the Chief Justice of India but so long as the views are held bona fide by the two Chief Justices, we do not see why they should be worried about the disclosure of their views? Why should they feel embarrassed by public discu-ssion or debate of the views expressed by them when they have acted bona fide with the greatest care and circums-pection and after mature deliberation. We also find it difficult to agree that if the differing views of the two Chief Justices become known to the outside world, the public discussion and debate that might ensue might have the effect of lowering the dignity and prestige of casino online one or the other of the two Chief Justices. When the differing views of the two Chief Justices are made public as a result of disclosure, there would certainly be public discussion and debate in regard to those views with some criticizing one wiew and some criticizing the other, but that cannot be helped in a democracy where the right of free speech and expression is a guaranteed right and if the views have been expressed by the two Chief Justices with proper care and deliberation and a full sense of responsibility in discharge of a constitutional duty, there is no reason why the two Chief Justices should worry about public criticism.

We fail to see how such public criticism could have the effect of undermining the prestige and dignity of one or the other Chief Justice. So long as the two Chief Justices have acted honestly and bona fide with full consciousness of the heavy responsibility that rests upon them in matters of this kind, we do not think that any amount of public criticism can affect their prestige and dignity. But if either on the two Chief Justices has acted carelessly or improperly or irresponsibly or out of oblique motive, his view would certainly toe subjected public criticism and censure and that might show him in poor light and bring him down in the esteem of the people, but that will be the price which he will have to pay for his remissness in discharge of his constitutional duty, No Chief Justice or Judge should be allowed to hide his improper or irresponsible action under the cloak of secrecy. If any Chief Justice or Judge has behaved improperly or irresponsibly or in a manner not befitting the high office he holds, there is no reason why his action should not be exposed to public gaze. We believe in an open Government and openness in Government does not mean openness merely in the functioning of the executive arm of the State. The same openness must characterise the functioning of the judicial apparatus including judicial appointments and transfers. Today the process of judicial appointments and transfers is shrouded in mystery. The public does not know how judges are selected and appointed or transferred and whether any and if so what, principles and norms govern this process. The exercise of the power of appointment and transfer remains a sacred ritual whose mystery is confined only to a handful of high priests, namely, the Chief Justice of the High Court, the Chief Minister of the State, the Law Minister of the Central Government and the Chief Justice of India in case of appointment or non-appointment or non-appointment of a High Court Judge and the Law Minister of the Central Government and the Chief Justice of India in case of appointment of a Supreme Court Judge or transfer of a High Court Judge. The mystique of this process is kept secret and confidential between just a few individuals, not more than two or four as the case may be, and the possibility cannot therefore be ruled cut that howsoever highly placed may be these individuals, the process may on occasions result in making of wrong appointments and transfers and may also at times, though fortunately very rare, lend itself to nepotism, political as well as personal and even trade-off. We do not see any reason why this process of appointment and transfer of Judges should be regarded as so sacrosanct that no one should be able to pry into it and it should be protected against disclosure at all events and in all circumstances. In fact, the possibility of subsequent disclosure would act a an effective check against carelessness, impetuosity, arbitrariness or mala fides on the part of the Central Government, the Chief Justice of the High Court and the Chief Justice of India and ensure bona fide and correct approach, objective and dispassionate consideration, mature thought and deliberation and proper application of mind on their part in discharging their constitutional duty in regard to appointments and transfers of Judges. ...."

blds vfrfjDr iVuk mPp U;k;ky; ds rRdkyhu eq[; U;k;k/kh'k ds-ch-,u- flag dk LFkkukUrj.k tc enzkl mPp U;k;ky; ds fy, dj fn;k Fkk rks Hkkjr ds rRdkyhu eq[; U;k;k/kh'k okbZ-oh- pUnzpwM us vius gh U;k;ky; ¼mPpre U;k;ky;½ esa bl ckr dk gyQukek nkf[ky fd;k fd bl LFkkukUrj.k ds ihNs dksbZ nqHkkZouk ugha fNih gSA

tc iwoZ esa bl izdkj ds mnkgj.k ekStwn gSa fd eq[; U;k;k/kh'k Lo;a gyQukek nkf[ky djrs gSa vkSj mPpre U;k;ky; dk;Zikfydk dks fu;qfDr laca/kh nLrkost lkoZtfud djus dk vkns'k ns ldrh gS rks vc ;g fNiko D;ksa\ dqN le; iwoZ blh mPp U;k;ky; ds ,d U;k;ewfrZ dh fu;qfDr dks pqukSrh nh x;h rks ihB ds bl vkns'k ds ckotwn fd ^,izSty fjiksVZ* lhy cUn fyQkQs esa dksVZ esa nkf[ky dh tk;] nkf[ky ugha dh x;h cfYd ekeys dks mPpre U;k;ky; esa LFkkuUrfjr dj fn;k x;k vkSj og ^vizSty fjiksVZ* lkoZtfud ugha gqbZA yxHkx ,d o"kZ iwoZ fnYyh mPp U;k;ky; ds eq[; U;k;k/kh'k vftr izdk'k 'kkg us mPpre U;k;ky; esa viuh fu;qfDr u gksus ij fcnkbZ lekjksg esa dgk Fkk ^^;g turk r; djs fd mudh fu;qfDr mPpre U;k;ky; esa D;ksa ugha gqbZ** mUgksaus vkxs dksysft;e }kjk ttksa dh fu;qfDr ij dgk fd ;fn fdlh tt dh ojh;rk dks utjvankt fd;k tkrk gS rks mlds fy, dkj.k crk;k tkuk pkfg,A mudh bl vo/kkj.kk dks etcwrh iznku djrs gq, ns'k ds dbZ vU; eq[; U;k;k/kh'kksa ,oa U;k;fonkas us dgk dksysft;e }kjk ttksa dh fu;qfDr;ksa esa ;ksX;rk dks rjthg u nsdj lkSnsckth gksrh gSA

ttksa dh Opaque fu;qfDr iz.kkyh ij laln dh LFkk;h lfefr ds Views dqN bl izdkj gSa&
"The closed system prevailing now is not getting meritorious persons called to the Bench... till the warrant of appointment is issued by the president, it is maintained as secret. It is the democratic principle. Committee further said that aspirants name merits and the selections process shall be made public and transparent."

U;k; nsus dh i}fr (Justice Delivery system) esa odhyksa o ttksa  nksuks dh honesty o Integrity dk cgqr vge jksy gS 'kk;n ;gh dkj.k Fkk fd odkyr dks Noble profession o ttksa dks 'My Lords' dgk x;kA blfy, ttksa dh fu;qfDr esa Entry Point ¼fopkj ds fy, ukeksa ds p;u½ ij gh lcls vf/kd lko/kkuh cjrus dh vko';drk gksrh gSA

vkt tc ns'k esa Hkz"Vkpkj fodjky :i /kkj.k dj pqdk gS] ftls dkuwuh vL= izgkj ls gh ijkLr fd;k tk ldrk gS ftlds fy, l{ke dkuwu] ikjn'khZ U;k; iz.kkyh rFkk bekunkj] fu"i{k QSlyk nsus okys ttksa dh vko';drk gSA gekjs laof/kku esa U;k;ikfydk dk Concept vesfjdk ls fy;k x;k gS tgk¡ 19oha lnh ls gh U;k;k/kh'kksa dh fu;qfDr lh/ks fcuk jktuhfrd gLr{ksi ds dh tkrh gS tcfd gekjs ;gk¡ ttksa dh fu;qfDr izfØ;k u flQZ vikjn'khZ gS cfYd mlesa ?ku?kksj jktuhfrd gLr{ksi Hkh gksrk gSA

ttksa dh fu;qfDr esa bUgha fofHkUu izdkj ds gLr{ksiksa@ Hkz"Vkpkjksa dks Nqikus ds fy, gj laHko dksf'k'ksa gksrh gSa bldks tu lkekU; rks NksfM ;s blds vk/kkj LrEHk odhy Hkh u tku ik;s fd fdu&fdu ds ukeksa ij fopkj gks jgk gS] u tku ik;s fd fdl Criteria ij fopkj gks jgk gSA

vikjnf'kZrk ¼xksiuh;rk½ Hkz"Vkpkj dh tuuh gS bl ckr ls gksrh gS fd nqfu;k ds nl Hkz"Vre ns'kksa esa fdlh esa Hkh lwpuk dk vf/kdkj ugha gS tcfd nl lcls bekunkj ns'kksa esa ukS esa vf/kdkj dh vktknh gSA laoS/kkfud laLFkkvksa esa ikjnf'kZrk ds vHkko esa gh Hkz"Vkpkj dh tM s QSy pqdh gSaA fu;qfDr ds igys ukeksa dks xksiuh; j[kus dk dkj.k Hkh 'kk;n ;gh gS fd ,d ckj uke pys tkus vkSj okjaV tkjh gks tkus ds ckn fQj dksbZ dqN ugha dj ldrkA

vHkh ckj ls fu;qfDr ds fy, ,d ;ksX;rk gS fd odhy dk nl o"kZ iqjkuk bUjksyes.V 'Right to practice' dk gksuk pkfg,A vc iz'u mBrk gS fd 10 o"kZ ds bUjksyes.V okys rks gtkjksa odhy gSa muesa ls fdldks pquk tk jgk gS blds fy, ekin.M fu/kkZfjr djuk vko';d gSA fcuk Criteria fu/kkZfjr fd, ukeksa dks vxzlkfjr djuk Arbitrariness dh esa vkrk gSA brus egRoiw.kZ in ij fu;qfDr vxj fcuk Criteria fu/kkZfjr fd;s gksrh gS rks ;g vlaoS/kkfud fu;qfDr dh gh esa vk;sxhA

vkt mPp U;k;ky; o mPpre U;k;ky; ds fu;qfDr e.My ¼dksysft;e½ dh fu;qfDr izfØ;k 'Tap on the Shoulder Method' ij vk/kfjr gS tks u flQZ xksiuh; gS cfYd xSj tokcnsg Hkh gS vkSj blh dk Qk;nk mBkrs gq, ,d ckj fQj dsUnz ljdkj U;k;k/kh'kksa dh fu;qfDr dk vf/kdkj vius gkFk esa ysus ds fy, gkFk iSj ekj jgh gS tks blds fy, uqdlknsg gSA

vc ;fn bl laoS/kkfud laLFkk esa tu fo'okl dh cgkyh djuh gS rks ttksa dh fu;qfDr izfØ;k dks iw.kZ ikjn'khZ cukuk gksxk blds fy, vko';d gS&

  • fu;qfDr dh O;oLFkk pkgs ftlds gkFk esa gks ikjn'khZ gksA
  • p;u izfØ;k o ekin.M dk fu/kkZj.k gks rFkk mldk O;kid izlkj&izpkj djrs gq, b.VjusV ij Mkyk tk,A
  • Desired Deserving Candidates ls izkFkZuk i= vkeaf=r djds mldks b.VjusV ij Mkyk tk;A
  • Candidates ds ckjs esa tks vkifÙk;k¡ vk;sa mudh ,d Lora= tk¡p lfefr cukdj tk¡p gks mlds ckn gh muds ukeksa ij fopkj gksA
  • uke dks fu;qfDr ds fy, vxzlkfjr djus ;k vLohd`r djus dk dkj.k crk;k tk;A
  • p;u dk vk/kkj flQZ fu/kkZfjr ekin.M gksA
  • Discretions dks dksbZ txg u nh tk;A
  • Deserving dh Desirability dks Eligibility dh Criteria ds fudl ij dldj gh Suitability eki dj fu;qfDr izfØ;k dks vkxs c< k;k tk;A



Last Updated on Tuesday, 28 April 2015 02:57

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