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न्यायिक सक्रियता से खीझी सरकार द्वारा उच्च न्यायपालिका को पंगु बनाने का कुचक्र

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mPp U;k;ikfydk dh U;kf;d lfØ;rk ds dkj.k mPpre U;k;ky; o mPp U;k;ky;ksa }kjk fn, x, tufgr] lektfgr o ns'kfgr ds QSlyksa ls lÙkkyksiqi] Hkz"V] csbeku usrk] ny o ljdkjsa] bruk [kh> x;h gSa fd bu tufgrdkjh QSlyksa dks vikLr djus ds fy, dkuwu cukus ij mrj vk;h gSaA

fo/kkf;dk o U;k;ikfydk dk Vdjko dksbZ u;k ugha gS tc&tc U;k;ikfydk us tufgrdkjh fu.kZ; nsdj ljdkj ds pky] pfj=] psgjs ij loky [kM k fd;k gS bu usrkvksa dks ,slh fryfeykgV gqbZ tSls dqÙks dh iwaN ij ikoa iM x;k gks vkSj fujk'kk o grk'kk esa tks izfrfØ;k nsrh gS og f[kfl;kuh fcYyh [kEck ukspus tSlh yxrh gSA

ywVra= esa cny pqds nqfu;k ds lcls cM s ysfdu lcls Hkz"V yksdra= dk ,slk psgjk nqfu;k ds lkeus vk;k gS fd vc rks Hkkjrh; dgykus esa Hkh 'keZ vkrh gSA

mPpre U;k;ky; }kjk jktuhfr ds vijk/khdj.k ij jksd yxk;s tkus okys nks QSlyksa us lHkh nyksa }kjk jktuhfr ds vijk/khdj.k ij igys cgk;s tkus okys ?kfM ;kyh vkalw dh vlfy;r [kksydj lcds psgjs ls LoPN jktuhfr o ikjnf'kZrk dk eq[kkSVk mrkj fn;k gS blls ckS[kyk, vf/kdka'k jktuhfrd ny ,sls bdV~Bs gks x;s tSls ladV ds le; HksM s ,dtqV gks tkrh gSaA

fiNys 66 o"kksZa esa ,d yksdiky fo/ks;d u ikl djk ikus okys ny U;k;ikfydk dks Mjkus] fu;af=r djus o iaxq cukus ds fy, mPp U;k;ky; o mPpre U;k;ky; ds ttst dh fu;qfDr ds fy, vk;ksx cukus dk fcy jkT;lHkk esa is'k fd;k gSA

usrkvksa us viuh Hkz"V ekufldrk dk fuyZTt izn'kZu djrs gq,] viuh rkdr dk cstk bLrseky djrs gq, mPpre U;k;ky; ds fu.kZ; dks izHkkoghu djus ds fy, u flQZ cSd MsV ls dkuwu ykxw djus dh izfØ;k pkyw dj nh gS cfYd ttst dks Mjkus ds fy, mudh fu;qfDr esa ljdkj o nyksa ds usrkvksa ds gLr{ksi dk ekxZ iz'kL= djus dk iz;kl Hkh 'kq# dj fn;k gSA ;g ckr le> ls ijs gS fd yksdiky] efgyk vkj{k.k tSls vusd dkuwuksa ij pqi cSBh usrk blds fy, brus mrkoys D;ksa fn[k jgs gSaA

tc U;k;ky; i{k esa cksyrk gS rks usrk] ljdkj lcdh vkLFkk U;k;ikfydk esa ,sls c< tkrh gS tSls ?ku?kksj ckfjl esa unh esa ikuh vkSj tc U;k;ikfydk ljdkjksa] usrkvksa dh nq[krh jx] v{kerk] Hkz"Vkpkj] vdeZ.;rk ij maxyh j[k nsrh gS rks buds eqag ls U;k;ikfydk ds gn esa jgus dh ,slh ph[k fudyrh gS tSls dqÙks dh iw¡N ij fdlh dk iSj iM x;k gksA

2 th LisDVªe vkoaVu ?kksVkyk] eq[; lrdZrk vk;qDr dh nks"kiw.kZ fu;qfDr] fons'kksa esa tek dkyk/ku] vijk/kh usrkvksa ds pquko yM us ij izfrcU/k] ltk;kQrk tuizfrfuf/k;ksa dh lnu lnL;rk dh lekfIr] ohvkbZih lqj{kk ij coky] lhchvkks dks Lora= djus dh xqgkj] usrkvksa] vQljksa ds in ls gVkus ds chp ,d eghus esa vkokl [kkyh djus ds funsZ'k rFkk dqN vU; ekeyksa esa mPpre U;k;ky; dh lfØ;rk ls vkgr ns'k ds vc rd lcls detksj o Hkz"Vkpkj dks c< kok nsus okys iz/kkuea=h }kjk U;k;ikfydk dks gn esa j[kus dh uh;r ls lafo/kku esa la'kks/ku o ttst dh fu;qfDr ds fy, vk;ksx cukus dk tks fcy yk;k x;k gS] ;g cgl fNM x;h gS fd U;k;ikfydk dh gn D;k gS\ ;g igyk volj ugha gS tc ;g gn ;kn fnykus dh dksf'k'k dh x;h gS blds igys Hkh dbZ volj ,sls vk;s gSa tc ,slh fLFkfr;k¡@ifjfLFkfr;k¡ vkbZ gSaA

gekjk lafo/kku ,d f[kpM h dh rjg gS ftlesa lkr ns'kksa ls mldh vPNh&vPNh ckrksa dks ysdj bls rS;kj fd;k x;k gSA tgk¡ fczVsu esa laln loksZPp gS ogha vesfjdk esa U;k;ikfydk loksZPp gS ysfdu gekjs lafo/kku esa fo/kkf;dk] dk;Zikfydk o U;k;ikfydk ds :i esa rhu izeq[k vax cuk, x, gSa ftlesa lcdh vyx&vyx Hkwfedk fu/kkZfjr gSA lafo/kku ds bu rhuksa vaxksa esa lkeatL; cgqr vko';d gS vU;Fkk laoS/kkfud foQyrk (Constitutional Failure) dk [krjk mRiUu gks tk;sxkA gekjs ns'k esa lafo/kku dh gh lÙkk loksZPp gS] ;gh yksdra= dh og tM gS tgk¡ ls rhuks vax dk;Zikfydk] fo/kkf;dk vkSj U;k;ikfydk viuk bZa/ku ysdj vius vfLrRo dks cpk;s j[ks gaSA

yksdra= esa turk lcls vge gS tc rd lafo/kku cnyk ugha tkrk bl lafo/kku ds fglkc ls rks lc dqN turk }kjk turk ds fy, gh fd;k tk jgk gSA

vktknh ds ckn bu 66 o"kksZa esa lcls vf/kd le; yxHkx 54 o"kZ dkaxsl us gh jkt fd;k gS blfy, U;k; ikfydk ls mldk Vdjko Hkh iqjkuk gSA dkaxzsl dk U;k;ikfydk ls NÙkhl dk vkadM k jgk gSA vktknh ds ckn tc lafo/kku fuekZ.k izfØ;k esa Fkk ml le; Hkh dkaxzsl ds 'kykdk iq#"k iafMr tokgj yky usg: U;k;ikfydk dks cgqr 'kfDr'kkyh cukus ds i{k/kj ugha FksA os laln dks loksZPp cukuk pkgrs FksA gks ldrk gS mldk ,d dkj.k ;g jgk gks fd os fczVsu esa i< s fy[ks blfy, ogk¡ dk izHkko mu ij jgk gks D;ksa fd ogk¡ laln gh loksZPp gSA lafo/kku lHkk esa 6 twu 1949 dks loksZPp U;k;ky; ds vf/kdkjksa ij cgl ds nkSjku iafMr th us dgk Fkk fd laln dh bPNk ij dksbZ loksZPp U;k;ky; ;k dksbZ U;k;ikfydk viuk fu.kZ; ugha Fkksi ldrh ¼'kk;n ml le; muds tsgu esa ;g ckr u vk;h gks fd Hkkjrh;ksa ds vkSj fczVsu ds uSfrd vkSj jk"Vªh; lksp esa D;k QdZ gS½ ysfdu muds fojks/k dks njfdukj djrs gq, lafo/kku lHkk us U;k;kikfydk dks U;kf;d leh{kk dk vf/kdkj ns fn;kA bl vf/kdkj ls U;k;ikfydk dks rhuksa vaxksa ds vf/kdkj {ks= dh lhek,a ?kksf"kr djus vkSj laln }kjk ikfjr fd;s x;s dkuwuksa rFkk dk;Zikfydk ds fu.kZ;ksa dh U;k;f;d leh{kk dk vf/kdkj izkIr gks x;kA

fojks/k dk og flyflyk vkt rd cnLrwj tkjh gSA fopkj.kh; iz'u ;g gS fd tc dkaxszl lÙkk esa gksrh gS rHkh U;k;ikfydk ls mldks f'kdk;r D;ksa gksrh gS\ D;k bldk vFkZ ;g fudkyk tk; fd dkaxzsl Lora= U;k;ikfydk dh fojks/kh gS\ bl Vdjko dk ,d dkj.k rks ;g le> esa vkrk gS fd dkaxzsl dh fujadq'k lÙkk ij udsy Mkyus dk dke vc rd U;k;ky;ksa us gh fd;k gS pkgs og vkfVZfdy 356 dk nq#i;ksx gks ;k >kj[k.M ds pquko ds ckn ljdkj xBu dk ekeykA bykgkckn mPp U;k;ky; ds fo}ku U;k;ewfrZ txeksgu yky flUgk dk bafnjk xka/kh dk pquko voS/k ?kksf"kr djus okyk QSlyk rks vkikrdky dk vk/kkj cuk fn;k x;kA mlh le; 38osa la'kks/ku ds tfj;s vkikrdky dh ?kks"k.kk dks U;k;f;d leh{kk dh ifjf/k ls ckgj dj fn;k x;kA 39osa la'kks/ku ds tfj;s loksZPp U;k;ky; ij vkf/kiR; dk;e djuk FkkA bu lcls larq"Vh u feyus ij 42oka lafo/kku la'kks/ku vk;k ftlesa izko/kku dj fn;k x;k fd vc vkxs lafo/kku esa fd, x;s fdlh Hkh la'kks/ku ij dksbZ maxyh ugha mBk ldrkA iafMr tokgj yky usg# dh bPNk dks mudh csVh Jherh bafnjk xka/kh us iwjk dj fn[kk;k fd laln dks lafo/kku esa dqN Hkh djus dk vf/kdkj izkIr gS mldh fdlh Hkh U;k;ky; }kjk U;kf;d leh{kk ugha dh tk ldrh gSA fujadq'k lÙkk us xqaMbZ dk [kqyk izn'kZu djrs gq, U;k;ikfydk dh voekuuk ds lkFk&lkFk mldks /kefd;k¡ Hkh nsus yx x;h FkhaA

1976 esa U;k;y;ksa ij vf'k"Vrk dk vkjksi yxkrs gq, yksd lHkk esa dgk x;k fd lafo/kku mPp o mPpre U;k;ky; dks ;g vf/kdkj ugha nsrk fd fdlh laoS/kkfud lalks/ku dh oS/krk dk ijh{k.k djsa] ^^nqHkkZX; ls vnkyrksa us viuh fu/kkZfjr lhekvksa dk mYya?ku fd;k gS**A ,u-ds-ih- lkYos us dgk fd oDr vk x;k gS tc gesa lafo/kku dks vnkyrksa ls cpkuk gksxkA bruk gh ugha izp.M cgqer izkIr rRdkyhu iz/kkuea=h Jherh bafnjk xka/kh us Lo;a ?kks"k.kk dj nh fd ge ewy <kaps ds fl)kUr dks Lohdkj ugha djrsA ¼Kkr gks fd 1973 esa ds'kokuUn Hkkjrh ekeys esa ekuuh; mPpre U;k;ky; us ewy <kaps ds fl)kUr dks izfrikfnr djrs gq, dgk Fkk& ^^tcfd laln&lafo/kku ds fdlh Hkkx dks la'kksf/kr dj ldrh gS mls lafo/kku ds ewy <kaps esa ifjorZu ugha djuk pkfg,**½ vkSj Lo.kZ flag dh bl ckr dks fd U;k;/kh'kksa us bl okD; dk vk;kr fd;k gS] dks vkSj vkxs c< krs gq, dgk Fkk fd eSa ;g ugha dgwaxh fd U;k;k/kh'kksa us bldk vk;kr fd;k gSA pawfd bldk fdlh vU; lafo/kku esa vfLrRo ugha gS blfy, eSa rks ;gh dgwaxh fd mUgksaus bldk vfo"dkj fd;k gSA Jherh xka/kh ds fdpsu dSfcusV ds ,d vkSj peps lh-,e- LVhQsu us nks dne vkSj vkxs c< rs gq, dgk ^^vc bl laln dk vf/kdkj ?kksf"kr gks x;k gS tks vlhfer gSA la'kks/kuks ds tfj, ikl fd;s x;s dkuwu fdlh Hkh vnkyr dh lhekvksa ls ijs ?kksf"kr fd;s tkrs gSa vc ;g vnkyrksa ds Åij gS fd D;k mUgsa bldk mya?ku djuk pkfg,\ eSa ugha tkurk gw¡ fd D;k muds vanj ,slk djus dk lkgl gksxk] ysfdu ;fn os ,slk djrh gSa] rks tSlk dkuwu ea=h us dgk] og U;k;kikfydk ds fy, ,d [kjkc fnu gksxkA U;k/kh'kksa ds vkpj.k ds tkap ds laca/k esa lnu dh lfefr cSB jgh gS] gekjs ikl vius rkSj&rjhds vkSj e'khujh ekStwn gS**A

dkaxzsl us lke] nke] n.M] Hksn dk bLrseky djds U;k;ikfydk dks vius o'k esa djus dh dbZ ckj dksf'k'k dh vkSj dqN voljksa ij mls mlesa lQyrk Hkh feyh ysfdu vf/kdka'k mls vlQyrk gh gkFk yxh vkt U;k;ikfydk dh n`< rk dk gh ifj.kke gS fd gekjs lafo/kku iznÙk beste online casino ekSfyd vf/kdkj iwjh rkSj ij rks ugha ysfdu dqN gn rd lqjf{kr gSA

bafnjk xka/kh us U;k;ikfydk dks uhpk fn[kkus dk tks flyflyk 'kq: fd;k Fkk jktho xka/kh us Hkh mls tkjh j[krs gq, 'kkgckuks dsl esa mPpre U;k;ky; ds fu.kZ; dks vikLr djus ds fy, lafo/kku la'kks/ku djds U;k;ikfydk ds izfr vius izpUM cgqer okyh dkaxszl dk bjknk lkQ djrs gq, ;g fl) dj fn;k Fkk fd feLVj Dyhu Hkh mlh nyny dk ,d fgLlk Fks vc eueksgu flag us jktuhfr ds vijk/khdj.k dks LFkkf;Ro iznku djus ds fy, lafo/kku esa lalks/ku djkdj mPpre U;k;ky; dks uhpk fn[kkuk pkgrs gSaA

dkaxzsl uhr la;qDr izxfr'khy xBca/ku ds iz/kkuea=h eueksgu flag us viuh igyh ikjh esa Hkh blh rjg dh ulhgr U;k;ikfydk ¼mPpre U;k;ky;½ dks ns pqds gSa vc ,d ckj fQj mUgksaus viuh v{kerk] Hkz"Vkpkj dks fNikus ds fy, U;k;ikfydk dks canj ?kqM dh nh gS ftlesa oMZ vkWQ Qsnj ¶ykd Vqxsnj dh rtZ ij lHkh jktuhfrd ny ladV ds le; fl;kjksa dh rjg ,d gks x;s gSaA

U;k;ikfydk viuk lafo/kku iznÙk vf/kdkj {ks= cgqr vPNh www.atoledo.com rjg ls tkurh gS vkSj ml nk;js esa jgdj gh dke djrh gS ;fn dHkh dgha vfrØe.k gks Hkh x;k rks ml ij Lo;a gh ,D'ku ys fy;k gSA ,sls vusd volj vk;s gSa tc U;k;ky;ksa us Lo;a ,sls ekeyksa dk laKku fy;k gS vkSj viuh gn ls ckgj tkus okyksa dks QVdkjk Hkh gSA U;k;ewfrZ ,-ds- ekFkqj ,oa U;k;ewfrZ ekdZUMs; dkVtw dh csap us ,sls gh ,d fu.kZ; esa vius vkns'k esa dgk fd gky ds dqN ekeyksa esa ,slk yxrk gS fd U;k;ky; us dk;Zikfydk ds vf/kdkj {ks= vFkok uhfrxr ekeyksa esa n[ky fn;k gSA vkxs vkxkg djrs gq, dgk fd ;fn U;k;k/kh'k Hkh fuokZfpr izfrfuf/k;ksa vFkok iz'kkldksa dh rjg dke djsaxs rks ,slh fLFkfr esa U;k;/kh'kksa dk fuokZfpr izfrfuf/k;ksa dh rjg gh pquko gksxk vFkok iz'kkldksa dh rjg pquko o izf'k{k.k gksxk tks fuf'pr gh uqdlkunk;d gksxkA ;gh dkj.k gS fd U;k;ikfydk dh Lora=rk cuk;s j[kus dk egRoiw.kZ fcUnq bls jktfufrd vFkok iz'kklfud izfØ;k ls nwj j[kk x;k gSA

U;kf;d lfØ;rk ds  vkykspd U;k;ewfrZ ekdZ.Ms; dkVtw us Hkh vka/kzizns'k ljdkj o vU; cuke Jherh ih y{eh nsoh ds ekeys esa QSlyk nsrs gq, dgk&In our opinion, therefore, while Judges should practice great restraint while dealing with economic statutes, they should be activist in defending the civil liberties and fundamental rights of the citizens. This is necessary because though ordinarily the legislature represents the will of the people and works for their welfare, there can be exceptional situations where the legislature, though elected by the people may violate the civil liberties and rights of the people. It was because of this foresight that the Founding Fathers of the Constitution in their wisdom provided fundamental rights in Part III of the Constitution which were modeled on the lines of the U.S. Bill of Rights of 1791 and the Declaration of the Rights of Man during the Great French Revolution of 1789. ....
It must be understood that while a statute is made by the peoples’ elected representatives, the Constitution too is a document which has been created by the people (as is evident from the Preamble). The Courts are guardians of the rights and liberties of the citizens, and they will be failing in their responsibility if they abdicate this solemn duty towards the citizens. For this, they may sometimes have to declare the act of the executive or legislature as unconstitutional. ..."

dksbZ Hkh ljdkj 'kfDr'kkyh U;k;ikfydk ugha pkgrhA bl izp.M Xyksoykbts'ku o mnkjhdj.k ds nkSj esa ftlds Hkkjrh; iqjks/kk iz/kkuea=h th gSa] us viuh ulhgr ml lEesyu ¼jk"VªeaMy] fof/k lEesyu½ esa  igys nh Fkh ftlesa 53 ns'kksa ds yxHkx 800 izfrfuf/k Hkkx ys jgs FksA Lora= Hkkjr esa dkaxzsl Hkz"Vkpkj dh tuuh gS rks vU; ny mlds ikyu iks"k.k drkZ gSaA gj tuuh dks viuh larku I;kjh gksrh gS pkgs og fdruh gh fouk'kd D;ksa u gks\ dkaxzsl viuk tuuh /keZ fuHkk jgh gS] U;k;ky; viuh djuh dj jgs gSaA

dYiuk dhft, vxj U;k;ikfydk Hkh fo/kkf;dk o dk;Zikfydk ds Loj esa Loj feykdj [kkeks'k cSB tk; rks bl fnXHkzfer yksdra= dk D;k gksxk\ tks yksx vkt U;k;ikfydk dks bldh y{ke.k js[kk ;kn fnyk jgs gSa os 'kk;n viuh deZ js[kk Hkwy x;s gSaA dksbZ y{e.k js[kk rc rd fdlh lhrk dks ugha cpk ldrh tc rd og ekuorkoknh n`f"Vdks.k dks ifjR;kx u dj ns ;gk¡ ;g crkuk lehphu gksxk fd lhrk us y{e.k js[kk vius fgr ds fy, ugha cfYd ,d lk/kw dks thou ;kiu ds fy, fHk{kk nsus ds fy, ikj dh Fkh u fd ,d /kks[ksckt ds fy,A vxj dksbZ O;fDr U;k;fgr esa viuh y{e.k js[kk yka?krk Hkh gS rks mldk rgsfny ls bLrDcky gksuk pkfg, D;ksfd dbZ ckj U;k;fgr esa U;k;/kh'kksa }kjk ,slk djuk t:jh gks tkrk gSA

fo/kkf;dk vkSj dk;Zikfydk ds ^pksj&pksj* ekSlsjs HkkbZ lkfcr gksus ds ckn vke vkneh dks vc flQZ U;k;ikfydk dk gh lgkjk cpk gSA ,slk ugha gS fd U;k;ikfydk nw/k dh /kqyh gS ysfdu vkuqikfrd rkSj ij og vkt Hkh lcls csgrj o yksd dY;k.k dkjh dk;Z djus esa vkxs gSA orZeku esa mPp U;k;ky; ,oa mPpre U;k;ky; ds ttst dh fu;qfDr izfØ;k esa deh ikjnf’kZrk dh gS ;fn mls ikjnf’kZrk ckrs gq, foeqfDr dh tk; rks 'kk;n fdlh dks maxyh mBkus dh t:jr ugha iM sxhA
vxj pUn ekeyksa dks NksM fn;k tk; rks U;k;ikfydk us vc rd dksbZ ,slk dk;Z ugha fd;k ftlls ns'k o ns'k okfl;ksa dk flj 'keZ ls >qdk gks tcfd fo/kkf;dk o dk;Zikfydk esa ,sls gtkjksa mnkgj.k ekStwn gSaA

U;k;ikfydk dk nkf;Ro gS fd og vke vkneh dh ijs'kkfu;ksa fo'ks"kdj blds thou] Lora=rrk] lekurk] i;kZoj.k o Je dk fujkdj.k djsaA ;gh dk;Z dkuwu dk 'kklu dk;e j[kus ds fy, Hkh vko';d gS blds fy, ;g vko';d ugha gS fd og fo/kkf;dk o dk;Zikfydk dk dk;Z Lo;a djus yxsA oSls Lo;a og ;g dk;Z dj Hkh ugha ldrh D;ksafd mlds ikl ;g lc djus ds fy, u rks bUÝkLVªDpj gS u gh n{krkA ;g lc djkus ds fy, laof/kku iznÙk vf/kdkj mlds ikl t:j gS ftlds rgr og funsZ'k ns ldrh gSA

vkt lkekU; U;kf;d izfØ;k dks U;kf;d lfØ;rk vkSj U;kf;d lfØ;rk dks U;kf;d vfrokfnrk dh laKk nh tk jgh gS okLro esa U;kf;d lfØ;rk ls ogh yksx ihfM r] nq%[kh vkSj vlgt gks jgs gSa tks ;k rks Lo;a Hkz"Vkpkj esa fyIr gSa ;k mldks c< kus esa lgk;d gSaA vijk/k@Hkz"Vkpkj eqDr ns'k esa jguk O;fDr dk laoS/kkfud vf/kdkj gS vkSj bl dk;Z ds fy, U;k;ikfydk dks fdlh Hkh gn rd tkuk pkfg,A tks mlusa jktuhfrd ds vijk/khdj.k ij vadq'k yxkus ds QSlys ds tfj;s fd;k gSA vc vxj ;s Hkz"V] vijk/kh usrk bl QSlys dks csvlj djus ds fy, lafo/kku la'kks/ku djds dkuwu cukrs gSa rks vkus okys pquko esa tks Hkh ny oksV ekaxus vk;s mudks lkS twrs ekjdj vkSj ,d lkS ,d twrs piiyksa dh ekyk igukdj Bhd mldh rjg Lokxr djsa tSls muds ea=h] eq[;ea=h cuus ij Hkz"Vpkjh uksVksa dh ekyk iguk dj djrs gSaA

ge U;k;ikfydk dh /kkj dks dqan djus okys ls gj ml lafo/kku la'kks/ku dk fojks/k lM d ls laln rd djsaxs ftlls tukdka{kk ij dqBxkj?kkr gksrk gks D;ksafd yksdra= turk dh otg ls gS usrkvksa dh ugha] turk ds izfr usrkvksa@nyksa dk tks joS;k gS] ywV [klksV dk tks okrkoj.k gS ml ij 'kk;j dh nks iafDr;kA

^^oDr tc eqYd dk vk;k rks ygw eSus fn;kA
vkt os eq>ls iwNrs gSa rsjk dke D;k gSA**

Last Updated on Friday, 24 July 2015 16:39

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U;kf;d dk;Z ls fojr jgus ds nkSjku vo/k ckj ,lksfl;s'ku ds inkf/kdkjh ,oa vf/koDrkx.k mPp U;k;ky; izkxa.k esa izfrnu lHkk djds bl vkanksyu dks lQy cukus ds fy, ehfVax djds lc ds fopkj tkuus rFkk vkxs dh :i js[kk r; djus esa ,d tqVrk dk ifjp; fn;kA bl vkanksyu ds nkSjku ,lksfl;s'ku ds tks lnL; ,lksfl;s'ku ds U;kf;d dk;ksZa ls fojr jgus ds fu.kZ; ds fo#) tkdj dksVZ esa dke fd;k mudh lnL;rk c[kkZLr djus dh iqjtksj ekax dh x;h gSA

y[kuÅ [k.M ihB dk {ks=kf/kdkj c< kus dk ;g vkanksyu ekax iwjh gksus rd tkjh j[kus dks ;gka ds lnL; dfVc) gSaA okndkfj;ksa dk vfgr u gks blfy, vkus okys fnuksa esa U;kf;d dk;Z ls fojr jgus dk fu.kZ;  u ysdj U;kf;d dkZ djrs gq, bl vkanksyu dks vkSj izHkkoh <ax ls vkxs c< kus dh ekax ^ttesaV vktrd* ds lEiknd vfEcdk izlkn us bl vk/kkj ij dh fd U;k;ikfydk okndkfj;ksa ds fy, cuh gS u fd odhyksa] ttksa vkSj vf/kdkfj;ksa ds fy,A

vo/k cj ,lksfl;s'ku dh dk;Zdkfj.kh us bl ij fu.kZ; ysus rFkk vkanksyu dks vkxs dh :i js[kk r; djus ds fy, ehfVax djus fu.kZ; ysus dk QSlyk fd;k gSA

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fo/kkf;dk o dk;Zikfydk ls iwjh rjg fujk'k gks pqdh vke turk ds fy, mPpre U;k;ky; dk ;g fu.kZ; ?kus va/ksjs esa flYoj ykbfVfuax dh rjg gSA

geus ckj&ckj ;g fy[kk gS fd vc bl ns'k dks rFkk yksdra= dks cpkus ds fy, ek= ,d vk'kk U;k;ikfydk ls gh jg x;h gSA vius yksdfgrdkjh QSlyks ¼tks jktuhfrKksa] usrkvksa] vQljksa ds ywVikV ds fo#) gksrs gSa½ ds dkj.k U;k;kikfydk jktuhfrd nyksa o muds nYyksa dh vka[k dh fdjfdjh cu x;h gSA

gekjs ns'k dh jktuhfr esa vijk/k ,sls ?kqy fey x;k gS tSls ikuh esa vkDlhtuA vkt 99 izfr'kr ny rFkk 98 izfr'kr usrk vijk/kh gSa] ;s ckr vyx gS fd dqN dk vijk/k mtkxj ugha gksrk ftudk mtkxj gks tkrk gS muij dkjZokbZ ugha gksrhA

tSls gh dksbZ ,slk fu.kZ; fdlh Hkh Qksje ls vkrk gS tks bu nyksa o buds usrkvksa ds Hkz"Vkpkj esa ck/kd gksrk gS budks rqjUr mlds nq#i;ksx dh vk'kadk gksus yxrh gS tcfd bu vk'kadkvksa dk dksbZ rkfdZd vk/kkj ugha gksrk gSA

fiNys pUn fnuksa esa dqN ,sls fu.kZ; fofHkUu laLFkkvksa ls vk;s gSa tks bu nyksa dh LosPNkpkfjrk ij yxke yxkus ,oa 'kqfprk LFkkfir djus esa lgk;d gks ldrs gSaA

mPpre U;k;ky; us tks O;oLFkk nh gS mlds vUrxZr nks lky ls vf/kd dh ltk eqdjZj gksrs gh lkalnh o fo/kk;dh rqjar pyh tk;sxhA bl QSlys ls mu usrkvksa dks vo'; jkgr fey x;h gS tks blds vkus ls igys tuizfrfuf/kRo dkuwu dh /kkjk 8¼4½ dk ykHk ik jgs gSaA

bu ;kfpdkvksa ds lkFk&lkFk eq[; pquko vk;qDr dh mPp U;k;ky; iVuk ds vkns'k ds fo#) nk;j fo'ks"k vuqefr ;kfpdk [kkfjt djrs gq, ;g Hkh vo/kkfjr dj fn;k gS fd tks O;fDr tsy esa jgdj ernku ugha dj ldrk og pquko Hkh ugha yM ldrk ftlds dkj.k vc tsy esa jgdj pquko yM us ij Hkh ikcanh yx x;h gSA
jktuhfr dks vijk/khdj.k ls dqN gn rd eqDr djkus okyk ;g QSlyk rhu tufgr ;kfpdkvksa o nks fo'ks"k vuqefr vihy dks fuLrkfjr djrs gq, vk;k gSA nks tufgr ;kfpdk,a 490 lu~ 2005 o 231 lu~ 2005 Øe'k% fyyh Fkkel o ,l-,u 'kqDyk] egklfpo yksd izgjh us tuizfrfuf/kRo dkuwu dh /kkjk 8¼4½ dks valoS/kkfud (ultra vires) ?kksf"kr djus ds fy, mPpre U;k;ky; esa nkf[ky dh Fkh ftldh lquokbZ djrs
gq, ekuuh; U;k;ewfrZ ,-ds- iVuk;d ,oa U;k;ewwfrZ lq/kka'kq T;ksfr eq[kksik/;k; us ;g vfr egRoiw.kZ yksdfgrdkjh fu.kZ; fn;kA bu nks ;kfpdkvksa ds lanHkZ esa gh iVuk mPp U;k;ky; ds vf/koDrk olar dqekj pkS/kjh dh tufgr ;kfpdk la- 690 lu~ 2004 dk fuiVkjk ihB us fd;kA bu ;kfpdkvksa esa ;kfpdkdrkZ fyyh Fkkel dh vksj ls lhfu;j dkSafly Qkyh ,l- ukjheu o yksd izgjh ds egklfpo ,l-,u- 'kqDyk dks rFkk dsUnz ljdkj dh vksj ls ,fM'kuy lkWyhflVj tujy fl)kFkZ ywFkjk ,oa ikjl dqgkn us ihB ds le{k vius rdksZa dks j[kkA vius QSlys esa ihB us ;kfpdk drkZvksa ds rdksZa dks v|r djrs gq, fy[kk gS&

4... "Mr. Nariman cited a Constitution Bench judgment of this Court in Election Commission, India v. Saka Venkata Rao (AIR 1953 SC 210) in which it has been held that Article 191 lays down the same set of disqualifications for election as well as for continuing as a member. Mr. Nariman and Mr. Shukla submitted that sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act, insofar as it provides that the disqualification under subsections (1), (2) and (3) of Section 8 for being elected as a member of either House of Parliament or the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of State shall not take effect in the case of a person who is already a member of Parliament or Legislature of a State on the date of the conviction if he files an appeal or a revision in respect of the conviction or the sentence within three months till the appeal or revision is disposed of by the Court, is in contravention of the provisions of clause (1) of Articles 102 and 191 of the Constitution.

5. Mr. Shukla referred to the debates of the Constituent Assembly on Article 83 of the Draft Constitution, which corresponds to Article 102 of the Constitution. In these debates, Mr. Shibban Lal Saksena, a member of the Constituent Assembly moved an Amendment No. 1590 on 19.05.1949 to provide that when a person who, by virtue of conviction becomes disqualified and is on the date of disqualification a member of Parliament, his seat shall, notwithstanding anything in this Article, not become vacant by reason of the disqualification until three months have elapsed from the date thereof or, if within those three months an appeal or petition for revision is brought in respect of the conviction or the sentence, until that appeal or petition is disposed of, but during any period during which his membership is preserved by this provision, he shall not sit or vote. Mr. Shukla submitted that this amendment to Article 83 of the Draft Constitution was not adopted in the Constituent Assembly. Instead, in sub-clause (e) of clause (1) of Articles 102 and 191 of the Constitution, it was provided that Parliament may make a law providing disqualifications besides those mentioned in sub-clauses (a), (b), (c) and (d) for a person being chosen as, and for being, a member of either House of Parliament and of the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of a State. Mr. Shukla submitted that despite the fact that a provision similar to sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act was not incorporated in the Constitution by the Constituent Assembly, Parliament has enacted sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act.

6. According to Mr. Nariman and Mr. Shukla, in the absence of a provision in Articles 102 and 191 of the Constitution conferring power on Parliament to make a provision protecting sitting members of either House of Parliament or the Legislative Assembly or the Legislative Council of a State, from the disqualifications it lays down for a person being chosen as a member of Parliament or a State Legislature, Parliament lacks legislative powers to enact sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act and subsection (4) of Section 8 of the Act is therefore ultra vires the Constitution. ...

7... He submitted that in B.R. Kapur v. State of T.N. and Another [(2001) 7 SCC 231] a Constitution Bench of this Court reversed the aforesaid judicial view and held that conviction, and the sentence it carries, operate against the accused in all their rigour until set aside in appeal, and a disqualification that attaches to the conviction and sentence applies as well. He submitted that this later view has been reiterated by a Constitution Bench of this Court in K. Prabhakaran v. P. Jayarajan etc. [(2005) 1 SCC 754]. .... He cited the decision in Navjot Singh Sidhu v. State of Punjab and Another ([2007) 2 SCC 574] in which this Court has clarified that under sub-section (1) of Section 389 of the Code of Criminal Procedure, 1973 power has been conferred on the Appellate Court not only to suspend the execution of the sentence and to grant bail, but also to suspend the operation of the order appealed against, which means the order of conviction. ...

8. Mr. Nariman and Mr. Shukla submitted that in K. Prabhakaran v. P. Jayarajan etc. (supra) the validity of subsection (4) of Section 8 of the Act was not under challenge and only a reference was made to the Constitution Bench of this Court on certain questions which arose in civil appeals against judgments delivered by the High Court in election cases under the Act. .... They submitted that the opinion expressed by the Constitution Bench of this Court in K. Prabhakaran v. P. Jayarajan etc. (supra) regarding the purpose for which Parliament classified sitting members of Parliament and State Legislatures into a separate category and protected them from the disqualifications by the saving provision in subsection (4) of Section 8 of the Act are obiter dicta and are not binding ratio on the issue of the validity of sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act. ..."
;kfpdk drkZvksa ds rdksZa dks dkVus okys ,-,l-th- fl}kFkZ ywFkjk ds dFku dks m|`r djrs gq, ihB us dgk&

"10. Mr. Siddharth Luthra, learned ASG appearing for the Union of India in Writ Petition (C) 231 of 2005, submitted that the validity of sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act has been upheld by the Constitution Bench of this Court in K. Prabhakaran v. P. Jayarajan etc. (supra). He submitted that while answering question no.3, the Constitution Bench has held in Prabhakaran’s case that the purpose of carving out a saving in sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act is not to confer an advantage on sitting members of Parliament or of a State Legislature but to protect the House. ...

11. Mr. Luthra next submitted that the reality of the Indian judicial system is that acquittals in the levels of the Appellate Court such as the High Court are very high and it is for this reason that Parliament has provided in subsection (4) of Section 8 of the Act that disqualification pursuant to conviction or sentence in the case of sitting members should stand deferred till the appeal or revision is decided by the Appellate or the Revisional Court. ..."
ihB us ,-,l-th- ikjl dqgkn dh cgl dks m/k`r djrs gq, dgk&

"12. Mr. Paras Kuhad, learned ASG, appearing for the Union of India in Writ Petition (C) No.490 of 2005 also relied on the judgment of the Constitution Bench of this Court in K. Prabhakaran v. P. Jayarajan etc. (supra) on the validity of sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act and the reasoning given in the answer to question no.3 in the aforesaid judgment of this Court. ...He also referred to the provisions of Articles 101(3)(a) and 190 (3)(a) of the Constitution to argue that a member of Parliament or a State Legislature will vacate a seat only when he becomes subject to any disqualification mentioned in clause (1) of Article 102 or clause (1) of Article 191, as the case may be, and this will happen only after a decision is casino online taken by the President or the Governor that the member has become disqualified in accordance with the mechanism provided in Article 103 or Article 192 of the Constitution.

13. Mr. Kuhad further submitted that Mr. Nariman is not right in his submission that the remedy of a sitting member who is convicted or sentenced and gets disqualified under sub-sections (1), (2) or (3) of Section 8 of the Act is to move the Appellate Court under Section 389 of the Code of Criminal Procedure for stay of his conviction. He submitted that the Appellate Court does not have any power under Section 389, Cr.P.C. to stay the disqualification which would take effect from the date of conviction and therefore a safeguard had to be provided in subsection (4) of Section 8 of the Act that the disqualification, despite the conviction or sentence. ..."
nksuks i{kksa ds rdksZa dks lquus ds ckn ihB us viuh Finding nsrs gq, fy[kk&

"14. We will first decide the issue raised before us in these writ petitions that Parliament lacked the legislative power to enact sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act as this issue was not at all considered by the Constitution Bench of this Court in the aforesaid case of K. Prabhakaran (supra). In The Empress v. Burah and Another [(1878) 5 I.A. 178] the Privy Council speaking through Selborne J. laid down the following fundamental principles for interpretation of a written constitution laying down the powers of the Indian Legislature:

“The Indian Legislature has powers expressly limited by the Act of the Imperial Parliament which created it; and it can, of course, do nothing beyond the limits which circumscribes these powers. But, when acting within these limits, it is not in any sense an agent or delegate of the Imperial Parliament, but has, and was intended to have, plenary powers of legislation, as large, and of the same nature, as those of Parliament itself. The established Courts of Justice, when a question arises whether the prescribed limits have been exceeded, must of necessity determine that question; and the only way in which they can properly do so, is by looking to the terms of the instrument by which, affirmatively, the legislative powers were created, and by which, negatively, they are restricted. If what has been done is legislation within the general scope of the affirmative words which give the power, and if it violates no express condition or restriction by which that power is limited (in which category would, of course, be included any Act of the Imperial Parliament at variance with it), it is not for any Court of Justice to inquire further, or to enlarge constructively those conditions and restrictions.”

The correctness of the aforesaid principles with regard to interpretation of a written constitution has been reaffirmed by the majority of Judges in Kesavananda Bharti v. State of Kerala (AIR 1973 SC 1465) (See the Constitutional Law of India, H.M. Seervai, Fourth Edition, Vol.I, para 2.4 at page 174). Hence, when a question is raised whether Parliament has exceeded the limits of its powers, courts have to decide the question by looking to the terms of the instrument by which affirmatively, the legislative powers were created, and by which negatively, they are restricted....

15. Article 248 similarly provides that Parliament has exclusive power to make any law with respect to any matter not enumerated in the Concurrent List (List III) or State List (List II) of the Seventh Schedule of the Constitution. Therefore, Article 246(1) read with Entry 97 and Article 248 only provide that in residuary matters (other than matters enumerated in List II and List III) Parliament will have power to make law. To quote from Commentary on the Constitution of India by Durga Das Basu (8th Edition) Volume 8 at page 8988:

“In short, the principle underlying Article 248, read with Entry 97 of List I, is that a written Constitution, which divides legislative power as between two legislatures in a federation, cannot intend that neither of such Legislatures shall go without power to legislate with respect of any subject simply because that subject has not been specifically mentioned nor can be reasonably comprehended by judicial interpretation to be included in any of the Entries in the Legislative Lists. To meet such a situation, a residuary power is provided, and in the Indian Constitution, this residuary power is vested in the Union Legislature. Once, therefore, it is found that a particular subject-matter has not been assigned to the competence of the State Legislature, “it leads to the irresistible inference that (the Union) Parliament would have legislative competence to deal with the subject matter in question.”....

We may note that no power is vested in the State Legislature to make law laying down disqualifications of membership of the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of the State and power is vested in Parliament to make law laying down disqualifications also in respect of members of the Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of the State. For these reasons, we are of the considered opinion that the legislative power of Parliament to enact any law relating to disqualification for membership of either House of Parliament or Legislative Assembly or Legislative Council of the State can be located only in Articles 102(1) (e) and 191(1)(e) of the Constitution and not in Articles 246(1) read with Entry 97 of List I of the Seventh Schedule and Article 248 of the Constitution. We do not, therefore, accept the contention of Mr. Luthra that the power to enact sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act is vested in Parliament under Articles 246(1) read with Entry 97 of List I of the Seventh Schedule and 248 of the Constitution, if not in Articles 102 (1)(e) and 191 (1)(e) of the Constitution. ...

16. In the language of the Constitution Bench of this Court in Election Commission, India v. Saka Venkata Rao (supra), Article 191(1) [which is identically worded as Article 102(1)] lays down “the same set of disqualifications for election casino online as well as for continuing as a member”. Parliament thus does not have the power under Articles 102(1)(e) and 191(1)(e) of the Constitution to make different laws for a person to be disqualified for being chosen as a member and for a person to be disqualified for continuing as a member of Parliament or the State Legislature. To put it differently, if because of a disqualification a person cannot be chosen as a member of Parliament or State Legislature, for the same disqualification, he cannot continue as a member of Parliament or the State Legislature. This is so because the language of Articles 102(1)(e) and 191(1)(e) of the Constitution is such that the disqualification for both a person to be chosen as a member of a House of Parliament or the State Legislature or for a person to continue as a member of Parliament or the State Legislature has to be the same. ....

19. Accordingly, sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act which carves out a saving in the case of sitting members of Parliament or State Legislature from the disqualifications under sub-sections (1), (2) and (3) of Section 8 of the Act or which defers the date on which the disqualification will take effect in the case of a sitting member of Parliament or a State Legislature is beyond the powers conferred on Parliament by the Constitution.

20. Looking at the affirmative terms of Articles 102(1)(e) and 191(1)(e) of the Constitution, we hold that Parliament has been vested with the powers to make law laying down the same disqualifications for person to be chosen as a member of Parliament or a State Legislature and for a sitting member of a House of Parliament or a House of a State Legislature. We also hold that the provisions of Article 101(3)(a) and 190(3)(a) of the Constitution expressly prohibit Parliament to defer the date from which the disqualification will come into effect in case of a sitting member of Parliament or a State Legislature. Parliament, therefore, has exceeded its powers conferred by the Constitution in enacting sub-section
(4) of Section 8 of the Act and accordingly subsection(4) of Section 8 of the Act is ultra vires the Constitution. ...

22. As we have held that Parliament had no power to enact sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act and accordingly sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act is ultra vires the Constitution, it is not necessary for us to go into the other issue raised in these writ petitions that subsection (4) of Section 8 of the Act is violative of Article 14 of the Constitution. ...

23. The only question that remains to be decided is whether our declaration in this judgment that sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act is ultra vires the Constitution should affect disqualifications already incurred under subsections (1), (2) and (3) of Section 8 of the Act by sitting members of Parliament and State Legislatures who have filed appeals or revisions against their conviction within a period of three months and their appeals and revisions are still pending before the concerned court. Under subsections (1), (2) and (3) of Section 8 of the Act, the disqualification takes effect from the date of conviction for any of the offences mentioned in the sub-sections and remains in force for the periods mentioned in the subsections. Thus, there may be several sitting members of Parliament and State Legislatures who have already incurred disqualification by virtue of a conviction covered under sub-section (1), or sub-section (2) or sub-section (3) of Section 8 of the Act. In Golak Nath and Others vs. State of Punjab and Another (AIR 1967 SC 1643), Subba Rao, C.J. speaking on behalf of himself, Shah, Sikri, Shelat and Vaidialingam, JJ. has held that Articles 32, 141, 142 of the Constitution are couched in such a wide and elastic terms as to enable this Court to formulate legal doctrines to meet the ends of justice and has further held that this Court has the power not only to declare the law but also to restrict the operation of the law as declared to future and save the transactions, whether statutory or otherwise, that were effected on the basis of the earlier law. Sitting members of Parliament and State Legislature who have already been convicted for any of the offences mentioned in sub-section (1), (2) and (3) of Section 8 of the Act and who have filed appeals or revisions which are pending and are accordingly saved from the disqualifications by virtue of sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act should not, in our considered opinion, be affected by the declaration now made by us in this judgment. This is because the knowledge that sitting members of Parliament or State Legislatures will no longer be protected by sub-section (4) of Section 8 of the Act will be acquired by all concerned only on the date this judgment is pronounced by this Court. As has been observed by this Court in Harla v. State of Rajasthan (AIR 1951 SC 467):

“……..it would be against the principles of natural justice to permit the subjects of a State to be punished or penalized by laws of which they had no knowledge and of which they could not even with exercise of due diligence have acquired any knowledge.”

However, if any sitting member of Parliament or a State Legislature is convicted of any of the offences mentioned in sub-sections (1), (2) and (3) of Section 8 of the Act and by virtue of such conviction and/or sentence suffers the disqualifications mentioned in sub-sections (1), (2) and (3) of Section 8 of the Act after the pronouncement of this judgment, his membership of Parliament or the State Legislature, as the case may be, will not be saved by subsection (4) of Section 8 of the Act which we have by this judgment declared as ultra vires the Constitution notwithstanding that he files the appeal or revision against the conviction and /or sentence."

bl ihB us phQ bysD'ku dfe'uj bR;kfn cuke tu pkSdhnkj (People watch) ,oa vU; dh lafo/kku ds vuqPNsn 136 ds vUrZxr iVuk mPp U;k;ky; ds fo#) nk;j vihy 3040&3041 lu~ 2004 dks fuLrkfjr djrs gq, ;g O;oLFkk Hkh ns nh fd tks O;fDr oksV ugha ns ldrk o pquko Hkh ugha yM ldrkA
bu vihyksa dks fuLrkfjr djrs gq, ekuuh; mPpre U;k;ky; us dgk&

"5. Writ petitions C.W.J.C. No.4880 of 2004 and C.W.J.C. No.4988 of 2004 were filed in the Patna High Court contending that a person, who is confined in prison, whether under a sentence of imprisonment or transportation or otherwise, or is in the lawful custody of the police is not entitled to vote by virtue of sub-section (5) of Section 62 of the 1951 Act and accordingly is not an “elector” and is, therefore, not qualified to contest elections to the House of People or the Legislative Assembly of a State because of the provisions in Sections 4 and 5 of the 1951 Act. By the impugned common order, the High Court accepted this contention in the writ petitions and held:

“A right to vote is a statutory right, the Law gives it, the Law takes it away. Persons convicted of crime are kept away from elections to the Legislature, whether to State Legislature or Parliament, and all other public elections. The Court has no hesitation in interpreting the Constitution and the Laws framed under it, read together, that persons in the lawful custody of the Police also will not be voters, in which case, they will neither be electors. The Law temporarily takes away the power of such persons to go anywhere near the election scene. To vote is a statutory right. It is privilege to vote, which privilege may be taken away. In that case, the elector would not be qualified, even if his name is on the electoral rolls. The name is not struck off, but the qualification to be an elector and the privilege to vote when in the lawful custody of the police is taken away.”

6. Aggrieved, by the findings of the High Court, the appellants have filed these appeals. We have heard learned counsel for the parties and we do not find any infirmity in the findings of the High Court in the impugned common order that a person who has no right to vote by virtue of the provisions of sub-section (5) of Section 62 of the 1951 Act is not an elector and is therefore not qualified to contest the election to the House of the People or the Legislative Assembly of a State."

mPpre U;k;ky; ds nwjxkeh izHkko okys ml QSlys dk fojks/k dsoy os usrk ;k ny gh djsaxs ftudk otwn vijkf/k;ksa ij fVdk gS rFkk tks jktuhfr ds vijk/khdj.k ds i{k/kj gksaxs D;ksafd ;g QSlyk yksdra= esa tu vkLFkk dks cgky djus rFkk jktuhfr ds vkijk/khdj.k ij izHkkoh vadq'k yxkus okyk gS tks dke jktuhfrd nyksa us vktrd ugha fd;kA

Last Updated on Sunday, 03 May 2015 14:48

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