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गोपनीयता भ्रष्टाचार की जननी है

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ikjnf'kZrk bZekunkjh dk igyk lksiku gS tcfd xksiuh;rk Hkz"Vkpkj dh tuuh o Discretion mldk ikyu iks"k.k drkZ gSA
Lokra=;ksÙkj Hkkjr esa turk dks nks vf/kdkj] ,d U;k;ikfydk }kjk ,d fo/kkf;dk }kjk ,sls feys ftlls mldk vkSj ns'k dk cgqr dqN Hkyk gks ldrk Fkk ysfdu vQlksl ,d dk lgh mi;ksx ugha gks ik jgk gS tcfd nwljs dk mi;ksx ftEesnkj inksa ij cSBs yksx ckf/kr dj jgs gSaA ;s vf/kdkj gSa tufgr ;kfpdk o lwpuk dk vf/kdkjA ;s nksuksa ,d nwljs ds iwjd gSa rFkk nksuksa dk mn~ns'; turk dks vU;k; ls cpkuk rFkk ftEesnkj yksxksa ds dke&dkt esa ikjnf'kZrk lqfuf'pr djuk gSA
yksdra= ds LrEHk fo/kkf;dk] dk;Zikfydk o U;k;ikfydk ,slk izrhr gksrk gS fd bl ikjnf'kZrk ds iwjh rjg ls f[kykQ gS D;ksafd ;fn ,slk u gksrk rks eq[; U;k;k/kh'k ls ysdj iz/kkuea=h rd lc vius dks lwpuk vf/kdkj dkuwu ls ckgj j[kus dh ckr u djrsA vHkh dqN le; iwoZ mPpre U;k;ky; o mPp U;k;ky; ;gk¡ rd dh eq[; U;k;k/kh'k dh fu;qfDr esa ikjnf'kZrk ,oa tokcnsgh lqfuf'pr djus ds fy, lwpuk ds vf/kdkj ds rgr tkudkfj;k¡ ekaxh tkus yxha tks U;k;ikfydk dks cgqr ukxokj xqtjha tcfd U;k;ikfydk esa tulkekU; dk fo'okl iquZLFkkfir djus ds fy, ;g u flQZ U;k;laxr gS cfYd t:jh Hkh gSA
mPp U;k;ky; o mPpre U;k;ky; esa ttksa dh fu;qfDr] LFkkukUrj.k o mldh izfØ;k 'kq: ls gh fooknksa o cgl dk eqn~nk jgha gSA igys dsUnz ljdkj dh flQkfj'k ij fu;qfDr;k¡ gksrh Fkha ckn esa mPpre U;k;ky; ,d tqfMfl;y vkMZj djds viuh dksysft;e ds ek/;e ls fu;qfDr;k¡ djus yxk ysfdu fookn o cgl dks fojke ugha yxkA ftlds ihNs egRoiw.kZ dkj.k Hkh gSA tc dsUnz dh flQkfj'k ij fu;qfDr;k¡ gksrh Fkha rc Hkh tt cuus dh ;ksX;rk ekius dk dksbZ ekin.M ugha Fkk] ikVhZ ds vuq'kkflr odhy dk;ZdÙkkZ dks tt cuk fn;k tkrk Fkk vc tc mPp U;k;ky; dks dksysft;e dh fu;qfDr dh flQkfj'k ij mPpre U;k;ky; dh dksysft;e fu;qfDr dh flQkfj'k djrh gS rks Hkh ;ksX;rk ekius dk dksbZ fu/kkZfjr ekin.M ugha gSA ;g ek= dqN lhfu;j ttksa dk Discretion gS ftldks ekudj mPpre U;k;ky; ds dksysft;e ds lnL; vius Discretion ds vk/kkj ij fu.kZ; djrs gSa ftldk urhtk gS fd dqN fu;qfDr;ksa ls U;k;ikfydk dh xfjek dks vk?kkr yxk gSA ,slk dbZ ckj gks pqdk gS fd mPpre U;k;ky; dh dksysfTk;e mPp U;k;ky; ds dksfyft;e }kjk vxzlkfjr ukeksa dks vLohdkj dj nsrk gSA D;k bl ns'k dh turk dks ;g tkuus dk vf/kdkj ugha gS fd fdl vk/kkj ij ttksa dh fu;qfDr gsrq uke Hksts x;s vkSj fdu dkj.kksa ls mudks fujLr dj fn;k x;k\
vkt yk[k Vds dk loky gS fd brus egRoiw.kZ in ij fu;qfDr ds fy, D;k dksbZ Criteria ¼ekin.M½ gS\ ttksa dh fu;qfDr ds fy, lafo/kku ds vuqPNsn 217 ¼1½ o ¼2½ esa LFkk;h rFkk vuqPNsn 224 esa ,fM'kuy@,fDVax ttst dh fu;qfDr dk izko/kku fd;k x;k gSA H.M. Seervai ds Constitutional law of India ds pkSFks laLdj.k esa ml ij fy[kk gS&
"...That procedure was desined to test the fitness of a person to be appointed a High Court Judge; his character, his integrity and his campetence in various branches of the law, and the like. In recruiting a person from the Bar, his experience in defferent kinds of litigation would also be taken in to account"

ttksa dh fu;qfDr esa ,d fuf'pr Criteria dk u gksuk bldh xfjek o U;k; dh xq.koÙkk nksuks dks izHkkfor dj jgk gSA tc 10'x10'/4 ds pSEcj ds ,YkkVes.V ds fy, Criteria fu/kkZfjr djuk vko';d gS tSlk fd ekuuh; U;k;ewfrZ nsoh izlkn flag o vYyk jge dh ihB us fot; 'kadj f=ikBh ,oa vU; cuke ekuuh; mPp U;k;ky; bykgkckn ,oa vU; esa tks [2007(25) LCD 1266] esa fjiksVZM gS ,ykVeasV fyLV dks Quash djrs gq, fy[kk gS&
"Opposite parties may proceed afresh to allot the chambers ofter formulating the criteria...." rc ttksa dh fu;qfDr esa dksbZ Criteria D;ksa ugha\
bruk gh ugha ofj"B vf/koDrk ukfer djus ds fy, Full court dh jk; t:jh gS rks tt dh fu;qfDr esa flQZ rhu dh gh jk; D;ksa\ ikjnf'kZrk ds vHkko o Discretion dk Qk;nk mBkrs gq, ttksa dh fu;qfDr esa ^va/kk ckaVs jsoM h viqfg vkiqfg ys;* dh dgkor pfjrkFkZ gks jgh gSA Discretion dk lhfer mi;ksx djus ij "Supreme Court Advocate-on-Record Association & others V/s Union of India Reported in 1993(4) SCC 441 specking for the majority Hon'ble J.S. Verma J held".... the reduction of the area of discretion to the minimum, the element of plurality of Juges in formation of the opinion of the Chief Justice of India effective consultation in writing and  prevailing norms to regulate the area of discretion are Sufficient cheeks"

ysfdu okLro esa gks blds myVk jgk gSA ;gh dkj.k gS fd bruh deh ds ckotwn ukeksa ij lgefr ugha cu ik jgh gSA
ttksa dh fu;qfDr dks ysdj tks iz'u lkeus vk jgs gSa os u flQZ vuqÙkfjr gSa cfYd iwjh&iwjh U;k;ikfydk dks dV?kjs esa [kM k djus okys gSa vkSj flQZ ttksa dh gh fu;qfDr ugha bykgkckn mPp U;k;ky; esa fiNys yxHkx 30 o"kksZa esa prqFkZ Js.kh dh fu;qfDr ds fy, Hkh ,d Hkh foKkiu ugha fudyk r`rh; Js.kh esa lSdM ksa fu;qfDr;k¡ euekus <ax ls dh x;h vkf[kj D;ksa\ D;k ;g Hkz"Vkpkj dk [ksy ugha gS\
yxHkx jkst gh ikjnf'kZrk dh /kqu ctkus okys U;k;ky; dkuwu ls Åij gS\ vkf[kj ikjnf'kZrk ls bruh ?kcM kgV D;ksa\ ttksa dh fu;qfDr ds ckjs esa lwpuk lkoZtfud djus ds fy, Central Information Commission us tks funsZ'k tkjh fd;k Fkk mls mPpre U;k;ky; us viuh gh dksVZ esa pqukSrh ns nhA eq[; U;k;k/kh'k dks Right to Information Act ds ambit esa gksus ds fnYyh mPp U;k;ky; ds] fu.kZ; ij rRdkyhu eq[; U;k;k/kh'k ds-th- ckykd`".kuu~ us ;g vkifÙk mBk;h fd ttksa dh fu;qfDr;ksa ls lacaf/kr tkudkfj;k¡ losan'khy gS ftUgsa lkoZtkfud ugha fd;k tk ldrkA ;g ckr le> ls ijs gS fd fdlh Hkh fu;qfDr esa mlls lEcaf/kr tkudkjh fdl fygkt ls laosnu'khy gS flok; Hkz"Vkpkj dsA blls myV tc p;u izfØ;k ikjn'khZ o ekin.M vk/kkfjr gksrh gS rks ,slh fu;qfDr;ksa esa tu fo'okl dk Hkh lekos'k gksrk gSA fu;qfDr lEca/kh lwpuk lkoZtkfud u djuk mlesa Hkz"Vkpkj dh v'kadk dks tUe nsrk gSA
Kkr gks fd tc ttksa dh fu;qfDr dsUnz ljdkj }kjk dh tkrh Fkh rks 1981 esa Lo;a mPpre U;k;ky; us gh fu;qfDr ls lacaf/kr lwpukvksa dks lkoZtfud djus dk funsZ'k nsrs gq, S.P. Gupta V/s Union of India Reported in (AIR 1982 SC 149 esa observe fd;k&"....Sometimes it is difficult to recruit competent judges and no useful purpose is served by appointing mediocre judges who ultimately would not be able to make any impact so far as the arrears of pending cases are concerned and who would dilute the quality of justice administered in the High Court."

"....Now it is obvious from the Constitution that we have adopted a democratic form of Government. Where a society has chosen to accept democracy as its creedal faith, it is elementary that the citizens ought to know what their government is doing. The citizens have a right to decide by whom and by what rules they shall be governed and they are entitled to call on those who govern on their behalf to account for their conduct. No democratic government can survive without accountability and the basic postulate of accountability is that the people should have information about the functioning of the government. It is only if people know how government is functioning that they can fulfill the role which democracy assigns to them and make democracy a really effective participatory democracy. "Knowledge" said James Madison, "will for ever govern ignorance and a people who mean to be their own governors must arm themselves with the power knowledge gives. A popular government without popular information or the means of obtaining it. is but a prologue to a farce or tragedy or perhaps both." The citizens' right, to know the facts, the true facts, about, the administration of the country is thus one of the pillars of a democratic State. And that is why the demand for openness in the government is increasingly growing in defferent parts of the world."

"....    The demand for openness in the government is based principally on two reasons. It is now widely accepted that democracy, does not consist merely in people exercising their franchise once in five years to choose their rules and, once the vote is cast, then retiring in passivity and not taking any interest in the government. Today it is common ground that democracy has a moralities content and its orchestration has to be continuous and pervasive. This means inter alia that people should not only casino cast intelligent and rational votes but should also emeralds sound judgment on the conduct of the government and the merits of public policies; so that democracy does not remain merely a sporadic exercise in voting but becomes a continuous process of government--an attitude and habit of mind. But this important role people can fulfill in a democracy only if it is an open government where there is full access to information in regard to the functioning of the government."
"....    A democratic government, however, though it must compete with these other types of organisation, has a task which is complicated by its obligations to the people. It needs the trust of the governed. It. cannot, use the plea of secrecy to hide from the people its basic aims. On the contrary it must explain these aims: It must provide the justification for them and give the facts both for and against a selected course of action. Now must such information be provided only at one level and through one means of communication? A government which pursues secret aims, or which operates in greater secrecy than the effective conduct of its proper functions requires, or which turns information services into propaganda agencies, will lose the trust of the people. It will be countered by ill-informed and destructive criticism. Its critics will try to break down all barriers erected to preserve secrecy and they will disclose all that they can by whatever means, discover. As a result matters will be revealed when they ought to remain secret in the interests of the nation."

"....    We have no doubt that high level constitutional functionaries like the Chief Justice of a High Court and the Chief Justice of India would not be deterred from performing their constitutional duty of expressing their views boldly and fearlessly even if they were told that the correspon- dence containing their views might subsequently be disclosed, If, to quote the words of Lord Pearce in Conway v. rimmer 1968 AC 910 (supra) "there are countless teachers at schools and universities, countless employers of labour, who write candid reports, unworried by the outside chance of disclosure" here is no reason to suspect that casino online high level constitutional functionaries like the Chief Justice of a High Court and the Chief Justice of India would flinch and falter in expressing their frank and sincere views when performing their constitutional duty. We have already dealt with the argument based on the need for candour and frankness and we must reject it in its application to the case of holders of high constitutional offices like the Chief Justice of a High Court and the Chief Justice of India. Be it noted -- and of this we have no doubt -- that our Chief Justices and Judges are made of sterner stuff; they have inherited a long and ancient tradition of independence and impartiality they are by training and experience as also by their oath of office dedicated to the cause of justice administered without fear or favour, affection or ill-will and in fact there is no power on earth which can deflect them from the path of rectitude. We find it difficult to believe that they would not act as Judges but as weak kneed and ef-fete individuals afraid to express their views lest they might come to be known to others and provoke criticism. Confidentiality is not a head of privilege and the need for confidentiality of high level communications without more cannot sustain a claim for immunity against disclosure. Vide Science Research Council v. Nassa (1979) 3 All ER 673 and particularly the observations of Lord Scarman at pp. 697 and 698. Even if a document be confidential, it must be produced, notwithstanding its confide- ntiality, if it is necessary for fairly disposing of the case, unless it can be shown that its disclosure would otherwise be injurious to public interest. "

"....    There might be difference of views between the Chief Justice of the High Court and the Chief Justice of India but so long as the views are held bona fide by the two Chief Justices, we do not see why they should be worried about the disclosure Voor Webmasters:Webmaster van een casinos of gokhal gerelateerd website of webshop? Binnen Casino's Holland. of their views? Why should they feel embarrassed by public discu-ssion or debate of the views expressed by them when they have acted bona fide with the greatest care and circums-pection and after mature deliberation. We also find it difficult to agree that if the differing views of the two Chief Justices become known to the outside world, the public discussion and debate that might ensue might have the effect of lowering the dignity and prestige of one or the other kasyno internetowe of the two Chief Justices. When the differing slots online views of the two Chief Justices are made public as a result of disclosure, there would certainly be public discussion and debate in regard to those views with some criticizing one wiew and some criticizing the other, but that cannot be helped in a democracy where the right of free speech and expression is a guaranteed right and if the views have been expressed by the two Chief Justices with proper care and deliberation and a full sense of responsibility in discharge of a constitutional duty, there is no reason why the two Chief Justices should worry about public criticism. We fail to see how such public criticism could have the effect of undermining the prestige and dignity of one or the other Chief Justice. So long as the two Chief Justices have acted honestly and bona fide with full consciousness of the heavy responsibility that rests upon them in matters of this kind, we do not think that any amount of public criticism can affect their prestige and dignity. But if either on the two Chief Justices has acted carelessly or improperly or irresponsibly or out of oblique motive, his view would certainly toe subjected public criticism and censure and that might show him in poor light and bring him down in the esteem of the people, but that will be the price which he will have to pay for his remissness in discharge of his constitutional duty, No Chief Justice or Judge should be allowed to hide his improper or irresponsible action under the cloak of secrecy. If any Chief Justice now let's move on3 stories on justin-bieber-news.info in one day. or Judge has behaved improperly or irresponsibly or in a manner not befitting the high office he holds, there is no reason why his action should not be exposed to public gaze. We believe in an open Government and openness in Government does not mean openness merely in the functioning of the executive arm of the State. The same openness must characterise the functioning of the judicial apparatus including judicial appointments and transfers. Today the process of judicial appointments and transfers is shrouded in mystery. The public does not know how judges are selected and appointed or transferred and whether any and if so what, principles and norms govern this process. The exercise of the power of appointment and transfer remains a sacred ritual whose mystery is confined only to a handful of high priests, namely, the Chief Justice of the High Court, the Chief Minister of the State, the Law Minister of the Central Government and the Chief Justice of India in case of appointment or non-appointment or non-appointment of a High Court Judge and the Law Minister of the Central Government and the Chief Justice of India in case of appointment of a Supreme Court Judge or transfer of a High Court Judge. The mystique of this process is kept secret and confidential between just a few individuals, not more than two or four as the case may be, and the possibility cannot therefore be ruled cut that howsoever highly placed may be these individuals, the process may on occasions result in making of wrong appointments and transfers and may also at times, though fortunately very rare, lend itself to nepotism, political as well as personal and even trade-off. We do not see any reason why this process of appointment and transfer of Judges should be regarded as so sacrosanct that no one should be able to pry into it and it should be protected against disclosure at all events and in all circumstances. In fact, the possibility of subsequent disclosure would act a an effective check against carelessness, impetuosity, arbitrariness or mala fides on the part of the Central Government, the Chief Justice of the High Court and the Chief Justice of India and ensure bona fide and correct approach, objective and dispassionate consideration, mature thought and deliberation and proper application of mind on their part in discharging their constitutional duty in regard to appointments and transfers of Judges. ...."


blds vfrfjDr iVuk mPp U;k;ky; ds rRdkyhu eq[; U;k;k/kh'k ds-ch-,u- flag dk LFkkukUrj.k tc enzkl mPp U;k;ky; ds fy, dj fn;k Fkk rks Hkkjr ds rRdkyhu eq[; U;k;k/kh'k okbZ-oh- pUnzpwM us vius gh U;k;ky; ¼mPpre U;k;ky;½ esa bl ckr dk gyQukek nkf[ky fd;k fd bl LFkkukUrj.k ds ihNs dksbZ nqHkkZouk ugha fNih gSA
tc iwoZ esa bl izdkj ds mnkgj.k ekStwn gSa fd eq[; U;k;k/kh'k Lo;a gyQukek nkf[ky djrs gSa vkSj mPpre U;k;ky; dk;Zikfydk dks fu;qfDr laca/kh nLrkost lkoZtfud djus dk vkns'k ns ldrh gS rks vc ;g fNiko D;ksa\ dqN le; iwoZ blh mPp U;k;ky; ds ,d U;k;ewfrZ dh fu;qfDr dks pqukSrh nh x;h rks ihB ds bl vkns'k ds ckotwn fd ^,izSty fjiksVZ* lhy cUn fyQkQs esa dksVZ esa nkf[ky dh tk;] nkf[ky ugha dh x;h cfYd ekeys dks mPpre U;k;ky; esa LFkkuUrfjr dj fn;k x;k vkSj og ^vizSty fjiksVZ* lkoZtfud ugha gqbZA
yxHkx ,d o"kZ iwoZ fnYyh mPp U;k;ky; ds eq[; U;k;k/kh'k vftr izdk'k 'kkg us mPpre U;k;ky; esa viuh fu;qfDr u gksus ij fcnkbZ lekjksg esa dgk Fkk ^^;g turk r; djs fd mudh fu;qfDr mPpre U;k;ky; esa D;ksa ugha gqbZ** mUgksaus vkxs dksysft;e }kjk ttksa dh fu;qfDr ij dgk fd ;fn fdlh tt dh ojh;rk dks utjvankt fd;k tkrk gS rks mlds fy, dkj.k crk;k tkuk pkfg,A mudh bl vo/kkj.kk dks etcwrh iznku djrs gq, ns'k ds dbZ vU; eq[; U;k;k/kh'kksa ,oa U;k;fonkas us dgk dksysft;e }kjk ttksa dh fu;qfDr;ksa esa ;ksX;rk dks rjthg u nsdj lkSnsckth gksrh gSA
ttksa dh Opaque fu;qfDr iz.kkyh ij laln dh LFkk;h lfefr ds Views dqN bl izdkj gSa&
"The closed system prevailing now is not getting meritorious persons called to the Bench... till the warrant of appointment is issued by the president, it is maintained as secret. It is the democratic principle. Committee further said that aspirants name merits and the selections process shall be made public and transparent."

U;k; nsus dh i}fr (Justice Delivery system) esa odhyksa o ttksa  nksuks dh honesty o Integrity dk cgqr vge jksy gS 'kk;n ;gh dkj.k Fkk fd odkyr dks Noble profession o ttksa dks 'My Lords' dgk x;kA blfy, ttksa dh fu;qfDr esa Entry Point ¼fopkj ds fy, ukeksa ds p;u½ ij gh lcls vf/kd lko/kkuh cjrus dh vko';drk gksrh gSA
vkt tc ns'k esa Hkz"Vkpkj fodjky :i /kkj.k dj pqdk gS] ftls dkuwuh vL= izgkj ls gh ijkLr fd;k tk ldrk gS ftlds fy, l{ke dkuwu] ikjn'khZ U;k; iz.kkyh rFkk bekunkj] fu"i{k QSlyk nsus okys ttksa dh vko';drk gSA gekjs laof/kku esa U;k;ikfydk dk Concept vesfjdk ls fy;k x;k gS tgk¡ 19oha lnh ls gh U;k;k/kh'kksa dh fu;qfDr lh/ks fcuk jktuhfrd gLr{ksi ds dh tkrh gS tcfd gekjs ;gk¡ ttksa dh fu;qfDr izfØ;k u flQZ vikjn'khZ gS cfYd mlesa ?ku?kksj jktuhfrd gLr{ksi Hkh gksrk gSA
ttksa dh fu;qfDr esa bUgha fofHkUu izdkj ds gLr{ksiksa@Hkz"Vkpkjksa dks Nqikus ds fy, gj laHko dksf'k'ksa gksrh gSa bldks tu lkekU; rks NksfM ;s blds vk/kkj LrEHk odhy Hkh u tku ik;s fd fdu&fdu ds ukeksa ij fopkj gks jgk gS] u tku ik;s fd fdl Criteria ij fopkj gks jgk gSA
vikjnf'kZrk ¼xksiuh;rk½ Hkz"Vkpkj dh tuuh gS bl ckr ls izekf.kr gksrh gS fd nqfu;k ds nl Hkz"Vre ns'kksa esa fdlh esa Hkh lwpuk dk vf/kdkj ugha gS tcfd nl lcls bekunkj ns'kksa esa ukS esa vf/kdkj dh vktknh gSA laoS/kkfud laLFkkvksa esa ikjnf'kZrk ds vHkko esa gh Hkz"Vkpkj dh tM s QSy pqdh gSaA fu;qfDr ds igys ukeksa dks xksiuh; j[kus dk dkj.k Hkh 'kk;n ;gh gS fd ,d ckj uke pys tkus vkSj okjaV tkjh gks tkus ds ckn fQj dksbZ dqN ugha dj ldrkA
vHkh ckj ls fu;qfDr ds fy, ,d ;ksX;rk gS fd odhy dk nl o"kZ iqjkuk bUjksyes.V 'Right to practice' dk gksuk pkfg,A vc iz'u mBrk gS fd 10 o"kZ ds bUjksyes.V okys rks gtkjksa odhy gSa muesa ls fdldks pquk tk jgk gS blds fy, ekin.M fu/kkZfjr djuk vko';d gSA fcuk Criteria fu/kkZfjr fd, ukeksa dks vxzlkfjr djuk Arbitrariness dh Js.kh esa vkrk gSA brus egRoiw.kZ in ij fu;qfDr vxj fcuk Criteria fu/kkZfjr fd;s gksrh gS rks ;g vlaoS/kkfud fu;qfDr dh gh Js.kh esa vk;sxhA
vkt mPp U;k;ky; o mPpre U;k;ky; ds fu;qfDr e.My ¼dksysft;e½ dh fu;qfDr izfØ;k 'Tap on the Shoulder Method' ij vk/kfjr gS tks u flQZ xksiuh; gS cfYd xSj tokcnsg Hkh gS vkSj blh dk Qk;nk mBkrs gq, ,d ckj fQj dsUnz ljdkj U;k;k/kh'kksa dh fu;qfDr dk vf/kdkj vius gkFk esa ysus ds fy, gkFk iSj ekj jgh gS tks blds fy, uqdlknsg gSA
vc ;fn bl laoS/kkfud laLFkk esa tu fo'okl dh cgkyh djuh gS rks ttksa dh fu;qfDr izfØ;k dks iw.kZ ikjn'khZ cukuk gksxk blds fy, vko';d gS&
fu;qfDr dk vf/kdkj u dsUnz ljdkj ds gkFk esa gks u dksysft;e ds cfYd mPp U;kf;d lsok p;u lfefr dk xBu gksA
p;u izfØ;k o ekin.M dk fu/kkZj.k gks rFkk mldk O;kid izlkj&izpkj djrs gq, b.VjusV ij Mkyk tk,A
Desired Deserving Candidates ls izkFkZuk i= vkeaf=r djds mldks b.VjusV ij Mkyk tk;A
Candidates ds ckjs esa tks vkifÙk;k¡ vk;sa mudh ,d Lora= tk¡p lfefr cukdj tk¡p gks mlds ckn gh muds ukeksa ij fopkj gksA
uke dks fu;qfDr ds fy, vxzlkfjr djus ;k vLohd`r djus dk dkj.k crk;k tk;A
p;u dk vk/kkj flQZ fu/kkZfjr ekin.M gksA
Discretions dks dksbZ txg u nh tk;A
Deserving dh Desirability dks Eligibility dh Criteria ds fudl ij dldj gh Suitability eki dj fu;qfDr izfØ;k dks vkxs c< k;k tk;A

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dqiks"k.k dk f'kdkj dksbZ Hkh ra= Bhd ls dke ugha dj ldrk gSA oSls rks iwjk dk iwjk U;k;ra= gh dqiks"k.k dk f'kdkj gS ysfdu mÙkj izns'k dh gkyr lcls [kjkc gSA v/khuLFk U;k;ky; ls ysdj mPp U;k;ky; rd ttksa] vf/kdkfj;ksa] deZpkfj;ksa dh deh gSA dksVZ :e] vkfQl rFkk fjdkMZ :e dh la[;k dh deh rks bruh vf/kd gks x;h gS fd lqpk: :i ls dk;Z djuk eqf'dy gks jgk gSA vktknh ds ckn U;k;ra= ds bUÝkLVªDpj ij /;ku u nsuk vkt okndkfj;ksa ds fy, ?kkrd fl) gks jgk gSA
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RESOLUTION
Considering present strength of 64 Judges against sanctioned strength of 160 the matter of appointment of Judges in the Hon'ble High Court has become a subject of serious concern for the members of Oudh Bar Association. The Executive committee of Oudh Bar Association deliberated on this issue in its meeting. In the interest of online casino canada our judicial system it is felt imperative to make a spielautomaten online demand for appointment of good number of Judges in the High Court against existing vacancies.
The Executive Committee resolves that a request be made to Hon'ble Chief Justice and Senior Judge that their Lordships may proceed to take all needful measures for filling up the existing vacancies at the earliest.
The Executive Committee unanimously authorised Dr. R.S. Pande, the President of Oudh Bar Association to meet Hon'ble Chief Justice and Senior Judge and communicate the resolution of Oudh Bar Association.
Ramesh Pandy
General Secretary

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v/khuLFk U;k;ky;ksa dh fLFkfr Hkh deksos'k ,slh gh gS QdZ flZQ bruk gS fd ogk¡ fu;qfDr ljdkj dks djuh gSA vkt ljdkjksa dks vke vkneh ls dksbZ eryc ugha gS rks okndkjh rks flQZ ,d fgLlk gS mldkA
mPp U;k;ky; esa deZpkfj;ksa ds lSdM ksa in Lohd`r gSa ysfdu mnklhurk ds pyrs vktrd ugha Hkjs tk lds gSa ftlds dkj.k U;k; ckf/kr gks jgk gSA
oDr vk x;k gS fd bu fu;qfDr;ksa ds fy, ftEesnkj yksx ?kkfM ;kyh vk¡lw cgkuk cUn djds Bksl dk;Z ;kstuk cukdj lcls igys fu;qfDr;k¡ djsaA okndkfj;ksa dks U;k; fnykus ds fy, ;g vko';d gS fd U;k;ra= dks mldh leLr vk/kkjHkwr vko';drkvkas] ttst o vf/kdkfj;ksa] deZpkfj;ksa dh fu;qfDr] dksVZ :e] fjdkMZ :e odhyksa ds cSBus dh O;oLFkk] okndkfj;ksa ds fy, dksVZ ifjlj esa ewyHkwr ¼ikuh] cSBus] ew=ky;½ lqof/kkvksa dh LFkkiuk djds U;k; dh /kqjh dks etcwr fd;k tk;A tu lkekU; ds ewy vf/kdkjksa dh j{kk gsrq U;k;ikfydk dk l'kDr gksuk vR;Ur vko';d gSA

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gekjk lafo/kku ,d f[kpM h dh rjg gS ftlesa lkr ns'kksa ls mldh vPNh&vPNh ckrksa dks ysdj bls rS;kj fd;k x;k gSA tgk¡ fczVsu esa laln loksZPp gS ogha vesfjdk esa U;k;ikfydk loksZPp gS ysfdu gekjs lafo/kku esa fo/kkf;dk] dk;Zikfydk o U;k;ikfydk ds :i esa rhu izeq[k vax cuk, x, gSa ftlesa lcdh vyx&vyx Hkwfedk fu/kkZfjr gSA lafo/kku ds bu rhuksa vaxksa esa lkeatL; cgqr vko';d gS vU;Fkk laoS/kkfud foQyrk (Constitutional Failure) dk [krjk mRiUu gks tk;sxkA gekjs ns'k esa lafo/kku dh gh lÙkk loksZPp gS ;gh yksdra= dh og tM gS tgk¡ ls rhuks vax dk;Zikfydk] fo/kkf;dk vkSj U;k;ikfydk viuk bZa/ku ysdj vius vfLrRo dks cpk;s j[ks gaSA
yksdra= esa turk lcls vge gS tc rd lafo/kku cnyk ugha tkrk bl lafo/kku ds fglkc ls rks lcdqN turk }kjk turk ds fy, gh fd;k tk jgk gSA
vktknh ds ckn bu 64 o"kksZa esa lcls vf/kd le; yxHkx 52 o"kZ dkaxsl us gh jkt fd;k gS blfy, U;k; ikfydk ls mldk Vdjko Hkh iqjkuk gSA dkaxzsl dk U;k;ikfydk ls NÙkhl dk vkadM k jgk gSA vktknh ds ckn tc lafo/kku fuekZ.k izfØ;k esa Fkk ml le; Hkh dkaxzsl ds 'kykdk ^iq:"k iafMr tokgj yky usg:* U;k;ikfydk dks cgqr 'kfDr'kkyh cukus ds i{k/kj ugha FksA os laln dks loksZPp cukuk pkgrs FksA gks ldrk gS mldk ,d dkj.k ;g jgk gks fd os fczVsu esa i< s fy[ks blfy, ogk¡ dk izHkko mu ij jgk gks D;ksa fd ogk¡ laln gh loksZPp gSA lafo/kku lHkk esa 6 twu 1949 dks loksZPp U;k;ky; ds vf/kdkjksa ij cgl ds nkSjku iafMr th us dgk Fkk fd laln dh bPNk ij dksbZ loksZPp U;k;ky; ;k dksbZ U;k;ikfydk viuk fu.kZ; ugha Fkksi ldrh ysfdu muds fojks/k dks njfdukj djrs gq, lafo/kku lHkk us U;k;kikfydk dks U;kf;d leh{kk dk vf/kdkj ns fn;kA bl vf/kdkj ls U;k;ikfydk dks rhuksa vaxksa ds vf/kdkj {ks= dh lhek,a ?kksf"kr djus vkSj laln }kjk ikfjr fd;s x;s dkuwuksa rFkk dk;Zikfydk ds fu.kZ;ksa dh U;k;f;d leh{kk dk vf/kdkj izkIr gks x;kA
fojks/k dk og flyflyk vkt rd cnLrwj tkjh gSA fopkj.kh; iz'u ;g gS fd tc dkaxszl lÙkk esa gksrh gS rHkh U;k;ikfydk ls mldks f'kdk;r D;ksa gksrh gS\ D;k bldk vFkZ ;g fudkyk tk; fd dkaxzsl Lora= U;k;ikfydk dh fojks/kh gS\ bl Vdjko dk ,d dkj.k rks ;g le> esa vkrk gS fd dkaxzsl dh fujadq'k lÙkk ij udsy Mkyus dk dke vc rd U;k;ky;ksa us gh fd;k gS pkgs og vkfVZfdy 356 dk nq#i;ksx gks ;k >kj[k.M ds pquko ds ckn ljdkj xBu dk ekeykA bykgkckn mPp U;k;ky; ds fo}ku U;k;ewfrZ txeksgu yky flUgk dk bafnjk xka/kh dk pquko voS/k ?kksf"kr djus okyk QSlyk rks vkikrdky dk vk/kkj cuk fn;k x;kA mlh le; 38osa la'kks/ku ds tfj;s vkikrdky dh ?kks"k.kk dks U;k;f;d leh{kk dh ifjf/k ls ckgj dj fn;k x;kA 39osa la'kks/ku ds tfj;s loksZPp U;k;ky; ij vkf/kiR; dk;e djuk FkkA bu lcls larq"Vh u feyus ij 42oka lafo/kku la'kks/ku vk;k ftlesa izko/kku dj fn;k x;k fd vc vkxs lafo/kku esa fd, x;s fdlh Hkh la'kks/ku ij dksbZ maxyh ugha mBk ldrkA iafMr tokgj yky usg# dh bPNk dks Jherh bafnjk xka/kh us iwjk dj fn[kk;k fd laln dks lafo/kku esa dqN Hkh djus dk vf/kdkj izkIr gS mldh fdlh Hkh U;k;ky; }kjk U;kf;d leh{kk ugha dh tk ldrh gSA fujadq'k lÙkk us xqaMbZ dk [kqyk izn'kZu djrs gq, U;k;ikfydk dh voekuuk ds lkFk&lkFk mldks /kefd;k¡ Hkh nsus yx x;h FkhaA
1976 esa U;k;y;ksa ij vkf'k"Vrk dk vkjksi yxkrs gq, yksd lHkk esa dgk x;k fd lafo/kku mPp o mPpre U;k;ky; dks ;g vf/kdkj ugha nsrk fd fdlh laoS/kkfud lalks/ku dh oS/krk dk ijh{k.k djsa] ^^nqHkkZX; ls vnkyrksa us viuh fu/kkZfjr lhekvksa dk mYya?ku fd;k gS**A ,u-ds-ih- lkYos us dgk fd oDr vk x;k gS tc gesa lafo/kku dks vnkyrksa ls cpkuk gksxkA bruk gh ugha izp.M cgqer izkIr rRdkyhu iz/kkuea=h Jherh bafnjk xka/kh us Lo;a ?kks"k.kk dj nh fd ge ewy <kaps ds fl)kUr dks Lohdkj ugha djrsA ¼Kkr gks fd 1973 esa ds'kokuUn Hkkjrh ekeys esa ekuuh; mPpre U;k;ky; us ewy <kaps ds fl)kUr dks izfrikfnr djrs gq, dgk Fkk& ^^tcfd laln&lafo/kku ds fdlh Hkkx dks la'kksf/kr dj ldrh gS mls lafo/kku ds ewy <kaps esa ifjorZu ugha djuk pkfg,**½ vkSj Lo.kZ flag dh bl ckr dks fd U;k;/kh'kksa us bl okD; dk vk;kr fd;k gS] dks vkSj vkxs c< krs gq, dgk Fkk fd eSa ;g ugha dgwaxh fd U;k;k/kh'kksa us bldk vk;kr fd;k gSA pawfd bldk fdlh vU; lafo/kku esa vfLrRo ugha gS blfy, eSa rks ;gh dgwaxh fd mUgksaus bldk vfo"dkj fd;k gSA
Jherh xka/kh ds fdpsu dSfcusV ds ,d vkSj peps lh-,e- LVhQsu us nks dne vkSj vkxs c< rs gq, dgk ^^vc bl laln dk vf/kdkj ?kksf"kr gks x;k gS tks vlhfer gSA la'kks/kuks ds tfj, ikl fd;s x;s dkuwu fdlh Hkh vnkyr dh lhekvksa ls ijs ?kksf"kr fd;s tkrs gSa vc ;g vnkyrksa ds Åij gS fd D;k mUgsa bldk mya?ku djuk pkfg,\ eSa ugha tkurk gw¡ fd D;k muds vanj ,slk djus dk lkgl gksxk] ysfdu ;fn os ,slk djrh gSa] rks tSlk dkuwu ea=h us dgk] og U;k;kikfydk ds fy, ,d [kjkc fnu gksxkA U;k/kh'kksa ds vkpj.k ds tkap ds laca/k esa lnu dh lfefr cSB jgh gS] gekjs ikl vius rkSj&rjhds vkSj e'khujh ekStwn gS**A
dkaxzsl us lke] nke] n.M] Hksn casino en ligne francais partouche dk bLrseky djds U;k;ikfydk dks vius o'k esa djus dh dbZ ckj dksf'k'k dh vkSj dqN voljksa ij mls mlesa lQyrk Hkh feyh ysfdu vf/kdka'k mls vlQyrk gh gkFk yxh vkt U;k;ikfydk dh n`< rk dk gh ifj.kke gS fd gekjs lafo/kku iznÙk ekSfyd vf/kdkj iwjh rkSj ij rks ugha ysfdu dqN gn rd lqjf{kr gSA
bafnjk xka/kh us U;k;ikfydk €300 wacht gratis op jou na inschrijving bij beste online casino King, dus wacht niet en neem ook deel aan deze geweldige “online casino community”. dks uhpk fn[kkus dk tks flyflyk 'kq: fd;k Fkk jktho xka/kh us Hkh mls tkjh j[krs gq, 'kkgckuks dsl esa mPpre U;k;ky; ds fu.kZ; dks vkikLr djus ds fy, lafo/kku la'kks/ku djds U;k;ikfydk ds izfr vius izpUM cgqer okyh dkaxszl dk bjknk lkQ djrs gq, ;g fl) dj fn;k Fkk fd feLVj Dyhu Hkh mlh nyny dk ,d fgLlk gSaA
dkaxzsl uhr la;qDr izxfr'khy xBca/ku ds iz/kkuea=h eueksgu flag us viuh igyh ikjh esa Hkh blh rjg dh ulhgr U;k;ikfydk ¼mPpre U;k;ky;½ dks ns pqds gSa vc ,d ckj fQj mUgksaus viuh v{kerk] Hkz"Vkpkj dks fNikus ds fy, U;k;ikfydk dks canj ?kqM dh nh gSA
vke tu ds fy, larks"ktud ckr ;g gS fd ftl dk;ZØe esa mUgksaus ;g ulhgr nh mlesa Lo;a ekuuh; eq[; U;k;k/kh'k ,l-,p- dikfM ;k ekStwn Fks vkSj mUgksaus cgqr gh tksjnkj <ax ls bldk tokc nsdj ;g ldasr Hkh ns fn;k fd U;k;ikfydk bu canj ?kqM fd;ksa ls Mjus okyh ugha gSA
U;k;ikfydk viuk lafo/kku iznÙk vf/kdkj {ks= cgqr vPNh rjg ls tkurh gS vkSj ml nk;js esa jgdj gh dke djrh gS ;fn dHkh dgha vfrØe.k gks Hkh x;k rks ml ij Lo;a gh ,D'ku ys fy;k gSA ,sls vusd volj vk;s gSa tc U;k;ky;ksa us Lo;a ,sls ekeyksa dk laKku fy;k gS vkSj viuh casino online gn ls ckgj tkus okyksa dks QVdkjk Hkh gSA U;k;ewfrZ ,-ds- ekFkqj ,oa U;k;ewfrZ ekdZUMs; dkVtw dh csap us ,sls gh ,d fu.kZ; esa vius vkns'k esa dgk fd gky ds dqN ekeyksa esa ,slk yxrk gS fd U;k;ky; us dk;Zikfydk ds vf/kdkj {ks= vFkok uhfrxr ekeyksa esa n[ky fn;k gSA vkxs vkxkg djrs gq, dgk fd ;fn U;k;k/kh'k Hkh fuokZfpr izfrfuf/k;ksa vFkok iz'kkldksa dh rjg dke djsaxs rks ,slh fLFkfr esa U;k;/kh'kksa dk fuokZfpr izfrfuf/k;ksa dh rjg gh pquko gksxk vFkok iz'kkldksa dh rjg pquko o izf'k{k.k gksxk tks fuf'pr gh uqdlkunk;d gksxkA ;gh dkj.k gS fd U;k;ikfydk dh Lora=rk cuk;s j[kus dk egRoiw.kZ fcUnq bls jktfufrd vFkok iz'kklfud izfØ;k ls nwj j[kk x;k gSA
Judicial Activition ds  vkykspd U;k;ewfrZ ekdZ.Ms; dkVtw us Hkh vka/kzizns'k ljdkj o vU; cuke Jherh ih y{eh nsoh ds ekeys esa QSlyk nsrs gq, dgk&  In our opinion, therefore, while Judges should practice great restraint while dealing with economic statutes, they should be activist in defending the civil liberties and fundamental rights of the citizens. This is necessary because though ordinarily the legislature represents the will of the people and works for their welfare, there can be exceptional situations where the legislature, though elected by the people may violate the civil liberties and rights of the people. It was because of this foresight that the Founding Fathers of the Constitution in their wisdom provided fundamental rights in Part III of the Constitution which were modeled on the lines of the U.S. Bill of Rights of 1791 and the Declaration of the Rights of Man during the Great French Revolution of 1789. ....
It must be understood that while a statute is made by the peoples’ elected representatives, the Constitution too is a document which has been created by the people (as is evident from the Preamble). The Courts are guardians of the rights and liberties of the citizens, and they will be failing in their responsibility if they abdicate this solemn duty towards the citizens. For this, they may sometimes have to declare the act of the executive or legislature as unconstitutional. ...

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